COP24 - UNFCCC

COP24 is the 24th meeting of the conference of parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It took place in Katowice, Poland in 2018. The president of COP24 was Michał Kurtyka. The conference also incorporated the fourteenth meeting of the parties for the Kyoto Protocol (CMP14), and the third session of the first meeting of the parties for the Paris Agreement (CMA1-3 or CMA1.3) which agreed on rules to implement the Agreement. The conference’s objective was to have a full implementation of the Paris agreement.

It holds importance for the IAS Exam as the topic is related to climate change which is very important in the Environment and Ecology syllabus of the exam.

This article will provide you with essential facts about COP24 for UPSC.

The topic, COP24, is an important segment of the Environment and Ecology syllabus (Mains GS III) of the IAS Exam. Aspirants can prepare similar important environment topics by referring to the links below:

What is COP24?

It is the 24th meeting of the conference of parties (COP) which is the supreme body of the UNFCCC. Poland was the president of the COP24, and it was its fourth time being the COP president. COP24 aimed to bring a set of rules to implement the Paris Agreement.

Also read: List of Environment Conventions and Protocols

The quick facts about Paris Agreement:

  1. Curtailing the rise of global temperature this century below 2-degree Celsius, above pre-industrial levels; and also pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees celsius
  2. Conceive Nationally Determined Contributions
  3. It intends to replace the Kyoto protocol fully by 2020

196 Countries and the European Union participated in the COP24 and brought out a package of implementing rules for the Paris Agreement, called the Katowice Rulebook. Read on to know more about this rulebook.

Outcome of COP24 – Katowice Rulebook

It is a rulebook that enables the implementation of 29 articles of the Paris Agreement and is considered to be one of the milestones on the road to effective global climate action.

The main points about Katowice rulebook of COP24 are:

  1. It comprises the steps that each member nation is required to take to fight global climate change.
  2. It operationalises the provisions of the Paris Agreement by mentioning the processes and guidelines to implement it.
  3. The scope of an amendment has been given to the Katowice Rulebook.
  4. Where the Paris Agreement only mentioned the need of the rules that each country should devise as a part of global climate action; Katowice Rulebook specifies what actions can be included in the action plan, how and when to submit them.
  5. The Katowice Rulebook also specifies the greenhouse gases whose emissions have to be measured and states the measuring methods and conclusive information that has to be submitted by member countries.
  6. To implement nationally determined contributions introduced by the Paris Agreement, support will be given to the developing nations, as stated in the Katowice rulebook.
  7. Parties to COP24 will now have to provide necessary information about their NDC concerning its applicability.
  8. Climate finance has been specified in the rulebook which developed nations can aid developing countries. (Under the Paris Agreement, developed countries have committed to providing $100 billion annually from 2020 for dealing with climate change.)
  9. Monitoring and Progress Report System proposal (MPR) to (INDC) was discussed.
Aspirants should enhance their preparation by solving UPSC Previous Year Question Papers now!!

To complement your preparation for the upcoming exam, check the following links:

COP24 – Criticism

The critical analysis of COP24 is listed down below:

1. IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels – Countries could not conclude as to how to recognise it.

2. Though the push for climate change actions was mentioned, there was no clarity for the same. No defined plan has been brought forward, leaving many NGOs disappointed.

3. The rules for the voluntary market mechanism could not be agreed upon.

Voluntary Market Mechanism

  • These are carbon market mechanisms that assist developing countries in achieving their nationally determined contributions.
  • It aids trade of carbon emissions.
  • An emission trading system under the Kyoto Protocol remained inoperative and will be terminating in 2020.
  • Under the Kyoto Protocol, Emissions trading systems, Joint Implementation mechanism and the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) were established.

4. Discussion over Carbon Markets Deferred – India is one of the countries which has accumulated unused carbon credits and argued for the same to be allowed to be used in the new carbon market mechanism. This will enable India to emit a certain amount of carbon dioxide while implementing its projects. However, the discussion over the carbon market did not conclude and has been deferred to COP25.

India at COP24:

  1. Reaffirmation of India’s Intended Nationally Determined Contributions to act upon the goals set in Paris Agreement. India’s INDC centre around:
    • promotion of clean energy, especially renewable energy;
    • enhancement of energy efficiency;
    • safe, smart and sustainable green transportation network;
    • abatement of pollution
    • efforts to enhance carbon sink through the creation of forest and tree cover
  2. Reiterated the importance that should be given to the equity, climate justice and Common but Differentiated Responsibility.

COP24 – UNFCCC – UPSC Notes:-Download PDF Here

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Frequently Asked Questions about COP24

What is the purpose of COP24?

A core objective for countries at COP24 is to agree on the guidelines that govern the Paris Agreement, and to create a set of rules to help countries implement their national contributions and meet their targets.

What is the achievement of COP24?

Some achievements under COP24 are as follows:

  • 50 countries signed the “Solidarity and Just Transition Silesia Declaration”, which emphasizes the need for emission-reducing policies to include “a just transition of the workforce” and to create “decent work and quality jobs”.
  • The Polish presidency declared a “forests for climate” policy highlighting the important role of forests in solving climate problems.
  • Some countries say that they will increase their climate pledges in 2020, including India, Canada, Ukraine, and Jamaica.
  • Several dozen countries forming “High Ambition Coalition” – including the EU, UK, Germany, France, Argentina, Mexico, and Canada – pledged to raise their targets by 2020.

For more on Environment and Ecology preparation, you can check the related links below:

Related Links:

Environment Questions for UPSC Mains GS 3 UPSC Prelims Geography Questions
GS 3 Structure, Strategy and Syllabus United Nations
Topic-Wise GS 3 Questions for UPSC Mains UPSC Syllabus

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