The Vienna Convention came into force in 1988 and was universally ratified by 2009. It is called the Convention for the protection of the Ozone layer. The topic, Vienna Convention, is important for the IAS Exam as on 16th September, International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer was celebrated along with the convention’s 35th anniversary.
This article will provide you with all the important information about the Vienna Convention which will be important for the Environment and Ecology syllabus of the UPSC.
|The topic, Vienna Convention, is an important environment convention for the segment of the Environment and Ecology syllabus (Mains GS III) of the IAS Exam. Aspirants can prepare similar important environment topics by referring to the links below:|
What is the purpose of the Vienna Convention?
The purpose of the Vienna Convention is to protect the ozone layer from depletion. 28 countries originally signed the convention on 22nd March 1985. On 16th September 2009, Vienna Convention along with Montreal Protocol was universally ratified and thus became the first treaties in the history of the United Nations to achieve universal ratification.
35 Years of Vienna Convention & Ozone Day
In 2020, the world community celebrated the 35th anniversary of the Vienna Convention along with the International Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer (also known as the Ozone Day.)
The theme of Ozone Day 2020 – “Ozone for life: 35 years of ozone layer protection.”.
Aspirants should not confuse Vienna Convention for Ozone Protection with the following:
- Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) – It is a treaty of treaties that establishes comprehensive rules, procedures, and guidelines for how treaties are defined, drafted, amended, interpreted, and generally operated.
- Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations (1961) – It is a treaty that defines the framework of diplomatic relations between the member states and anchors diplomatic immunity. It has 192 members.
8 Salient Points on Vienna Convention for UPSC
The list below mentions the important points that aspirants should know about the Vienna Convention for UPSC preparation:
- Vienna Convention is the first of its kind to be signed by each member-state involved in it and was universally ratified on 16th September 2009.
- To strengthen the Vienna Convention’s goals of protecting the ozone layer, Montreal Protocol was brought in 1987 with an aim to reduce the production and consumption of (Ozone Depleting Substances) ODSs to protect the ozone layer.
- In 1994, 16th September (The day when Montreal Protocol was made open for signatures and the Vienna Convention was universally ratified) was proclaimed as Ozone Day by the UN General Assembly.
- The 8th amendment was made to Montreal Protocol and it came to be known as Kigali Agreement (The Amendment was signed in Rwanda’s capital Kigali.) It aims to reduce the manufacture and usage of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) by about 80-85% from the baselines until 2045.
- The member countries meet every three years to decide over research and systematic observations in the ozone layer.
- Ozone Research Managers is a forum that was introduced post-Vienna Convention. It is a forum of experts specialized in research related to ozone modifications.
- There is a multilateral fund that aids developing nations to help them make a transition from ozone-depleting harmful chemicals.
- There are two trust funds associated with the Vienna Convention:
- Trust Fund for Vienna Convention
- Trust Fund for Research & Systematic Observations
Vienna Convention – Conference of Parties
A Conference of Parties (COP) is held triennially. The latest COP will be the 12th COP to Vienna Convention that is scheduled to take place from 23 November to 27 November 2020 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The 11th COP to Vienna Convention met in November 2017 in Montreal, Canada.
Members of Vienna Convention
There are 198 members under the Vienna Convention.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) provides secretarial assistance to the Convention.
Vienna Convention & India
Is India a member of the Vienna Convention?
Yes, India is a member of the Vienna Convention. It acceded to the convention in 1991 and became a party to the Montreal Protocol in 1992.
India’s Actions in protecting the Ozone Layer
- The Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change is entrusted with the work related to the Montreal Protocol protection and implementation.
- Ozone Cell is set up for effective and timely implementation of the Montreal Protocol.
- Carbon tetrachloride (CTC) has been completely phased out by India as of 1st January 2010.
Aspirants can also read the conceptual topics like air pollutants, air quality etc, from the links below:
Aspirants should by-now know about the important points of Vienna Convention which can be asked in UPSC Prelims 2021.
As Environment and Ecology are important sections of the IAS Exam, aspirants can refer to the below-mentioned links to aid their preparation: