UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Global Environment Facility (G.E.F)

UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – Global Environment Facility (G.E.F)

Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a multilateral financial mechanism that provides grants to developing countries for projects that benefit global environment and promote sustainable livelihoods in local communities. Since its inception, this multilateral financial mechanism has advanced $17.9 billion in grants and mobilized an additional $93.2 billion in financing for more than 4,500 projects in 170 countries.  

  • GEF was established during the Rio Earth Summit of 1992.
  • It is based in Washington DC. United States
  • The GEF is jointly managed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the World Bank and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)
  • 183 nations are united under GEF in partnership with civil society organizations (CSOs). International institutions, private sector etc with the purpose of addressing the environmental issues across the globe.
  • The financial mechanism was established to help tackle our planet’s most pressing environmental problems. It provides funds to the developing countries and transition economies for projects related to climate change, Biodiversity, ozone layer.

Global Environment Facility UPSC

As an independently operating financial organization, GEF addresses six designated focal areas:

  1. Biodiversity
  2. Climate change
  3. International waters
  4. Ozone depletion
  5. Land degradation and
  6. Persistent Organic Pollutants


Structure of GEF:

The GEF has a unique governing structure organized around an Assembly, the Council, the Secretariat, 18 Agencies, a Scientific and Technical Advisory Panel (STAP) and the Evaluation Office.



GEF also serves as financial mechanism for following conventions:

  1. Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) .
  2. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNECCC) .
  3. UN Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) .
  4. Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs).
  5. Minamata Convention on Mercury



  • Although the Global Environment Facility is not linked to Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete Ozone Layer formally, it supports its implementation in countries with the economies in transition.


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