World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

The full form of WWF is World Wide Fund for Nature. It is an international non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation and conservation of nature and its different species. It is the world’s biggest conservation organization. It supports more than 1000 projects all over the world.

International organizations are an important part of the UPSC syllabus. In this article, you can read about the World Wide Fund for Nature for the IAS exam. It is also a part of the environment section of the IAS syllabus.

World Wide Fund for Nature History

  • Founded on 29th April 1961.
  • Its precursor organisation was the Conservation Foundation.
  • Its original name was World Wildlife Fund.
  • WWF Headquarters – Gland, Switzerland.

World Wide Fund For Nature Mission Statement

“To conserve nature and reduce the most pressing threats to the diversity of life on Earth.”

WWF Work

  • WWF works in the areas of climate, food, forests, freshwater, oceans and wildlife primarily.
  • It runs several projects in various fields in partnership with people, bodies and governments worldwide.
  • In species conservation, they focus on tigers, elephants, gorillas, giant pandas, sea turtles, polar bears, rhinos and whales.
  • Through its various projects, the organisation aims to check the degradation of the earth’s natural environment and create a future in which human beings live in harmony with nature.
  • Campaigns launched by WWF include Earth Hour and Debt-for-Nature Swap.

You can watch the video of ‘The Hindu’ news analysis dated 31 March 2019 in which Earth Hour is discussed here.

Living Planet Report

The famous ‘Living Planet Report’ (started in 1998) is published by the WWF every two years in which the health of the planet and the impact of human activities on nature are talked about. It is based on the Living Planet Index and the calculations of ecological footprints.

  • What is the living planet index-  It is a measure of the state of the world’s biological diversity based on population trends of vertebrate species in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats.
According to the Living Planet Report, 2020 released by the World Wide Fund for Nature, the population of vertebrate species has largely declined in the past half-century.

Findings of the report – 

  1. It shows an average 68% decline in global vertebrate species populations, between 1970 and 2016. In the Asia Pacific, the decline stands at 45%.
  2. Megafauna, or bigger species in terms of size, are more vulnerable because they were subjected to intense anthropogenic threats and overexploitation.
  3. Freshwater species populations have reduced by 84% on average since 1970.
  4. Since 1970, our Ecological Footprint has exceeded the Earth’s rate of regeneration.

Get the list of all important international organizations’ reports for UPSC in the linked article.

WWF India

It was established in November 1969 as the charitable public trust. The aim of the World Wide Fund for Nature – India:

  1. To conserve the worldwide biological diversity
  2. To promote the sustained use of renewable resources
  3. To reduce pollution and wasteful consumption

WWF-India works in the following landscapes and critical regions for its conservation programme:

  • Satpuda Maikal
  • Terai Arc
  • Western Ghats-Nilgiris
  • Sunderbans
  • North Bank
  • Kaziranga Karbi Anglong
  • Kanchendzonga
  • Western Arunachal
  • Western India
  • Western Himalayas
  • Bharatpur

There are a few priority species for which WWF-India plans its work:

  1. Bengal tiger
  2. Asian elephant
  3. Indian or greater one-horned rhino
  4. Ganges river dolphin
  5. Snow leopard
  6. Red panda

Candidates can visit the related links provided below that are relevant for their upcoming exam preparation –

The above details would help candidates prepare for UPSC 2021.

Related Links

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