The first Wildlife Action Plan was released from 1983 to 2001 and the second for 2002 to 2016. The Union Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) announced the third National Wildlife Action Plan for 2017-2031. In this article, one can learn more about the Third National Wildlife Action Plan (NWAP).
UPSC aspirants can read in detail about the Species in News which are important from the upcoming Civil Services Exam prelims perspective at the linked article.
Aspirants would find this article very helpful while preparing for the IAS Exam.
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Wildlife conservation and biodiversity are important topics in the environment and ecology sections in the UPSC exam. Every year, an increasing number of questions are being asked from this section in both the IAS prelims and the IAS mains exams. The Wildlife Action Plans are envisaged to conserve and protect wildlife in India through the protected-area centric approach. Protected areas are well-defined geographical spaces, recognized through legal and other means, to achieve the long-term conservation of nature with its associated ecosystem.
Candidates can get detailed notes on the Climate, Vegetation & Wildlife of India for UPSC prelims at the linked article.
About the Third National Wildlife Action Plan
The third National Wildlife Action Plan is unique as this is the first time India has recognised the concerns relating to climate change impact on wildlife and stressed on integrating actions that need to be taken for its mitigation and adaptation into wildlife management planning processes.
The Action Plan emphasises the importance of integrated management of coastal and marine ecosystems in India. Under the five themes, there are 103 conservation actions and 250 projects in the Action Plan.
Along with the Third National Wildlife Action Plan, the then Union Minister of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, Dr Harsh Vardhan also launched the India Wildlife Mobile App to mark the occasion.
The Indian Parliament enacted the Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972, which provides for the safeguard and protection of the wildlife (flora and fauna) in the country. To know more about the Act, candidates can visit the linked article.
Third Wildlife Action Plan – Important Facts
The Third Wildlife Action Plan was drafted by a 12 member committee headed by JC Kala, a former secretary to MoEFCC. The plan contains detailed recommendations to be practiced in protected areas. The key focus areas of this plan are wildlife health, conservation of the marine ecosystem, reduction of human-wildlife conflict, conservation of coastal ecosystem, and integration of climate change into wildlife planning.
- This is the first time that an action plan on wildlife is recognizing the impact of climate change on wildlife.
- The plan focuses on integrating climate change mitigation actions into the wildlife management planning process.
- It suggests planting along ecological gradients and assisted wildlife migration because climate change has caused the death of certain flora.
- Special focus on habitat conservation in coastal, marine, and inland aquatic ecosystems and also the recovery of threatened species.
- The plan talks about the issue of animal-human conflict and its impact on wildlife habitats such as its shrinkage, deterioration, and fragmentation.
- Highlighting the importance of people’s participation in this regard, the plan encourages awareness of conservation, ecodevelopment, education, training, and outreach programs for people.
- It also suggests private sector participation in the wildlife conservation process.
Components of Third National Wildlife Action Plan
The five components of the National Wildlife Action Plan include:
- Strengthening and promoting the integrated management of wildlife and their habitats
- Adaptation to climate change and promoting integrated sustainable management of aquatic biodiversity in India
- Promoting eco-tourism, nature education and participatory management
- Strengthening wildlife research and monitoring of the development of human resources in wildlife conservation
- Enabling policies and resources for the conservation of wildlife in India
UPSC aspirants can also read about the National Board for Wildlife (NBWL), the apex body in India for all wildlife-related matters at the linked article. It is primarily responsible for the promotion of wildlife conservation and the development of wildlife and forests.
Frequently Asked Questions on Third National Wildlife Action Plan
Q 1. What is NWAP?
Q 2. When was the third National Wildlife Action Plan launched?
Q 3. What is the main objective of the Third National Wildlife Action Plan?