According to the recent data released by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on July 29, 2019, India’s tiger population has risen to 2,967 in 2018 within a span of 12 years.
As per the latest data, the largest survey conducted by the government to map the Tiger Population in India till date was over 381,400 km of forested habitats across 20 states.
Tiger Conservation in India is a very crucial topic as the current number of tigers has been making into the endangered list at a growing pace. However, there has been a mixed outcome from the tiger population graph. Even though a lot of activities like poaching, hunting has been taking place, various organizations along with government have been trying their best to restore these sets of species.
This article gives an insight into the majors carried out for Tiger conservation in India.
Aspirants can get a lot of information for the upcoming UPSC 2020 Exam preparation from this article.
Table of contents:
Tiger Symbol for Power and Energy
Tiger is the National Animal of India and also has a significant position in Indian culture. Tiger usually symbolizes Power and enormous Energy.
Some interesting facts related to Tigers in India:
- Nagpur is also known as the ‘Tiger Capital’ of India
- There are 13 tiger reserves in this Vidharbha (including the Nagpur division of eastern) alone.
- The national parks around Nagpur include Umred Karhandla Wildlife Sanctuary, Pench National Park, Nagzira-Navegaon Tiger Reserve, Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve, Melghat Tiger Reserve, and Bor Tiger Reserve.
- The Climatic condition of this forested region is very appropriate for tiger conservation.
The list of tiger reserves in India is given below:
|Sl. No.||State||Name of Tiger Reserve|
|1||Andhra Pradesh||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam|
|2||Arunachal Pradesh||Namdapha National Park|
|3||Arunachal Pradesh||Kamlang Tiger Reserve|
|4||Arunachal Pradesh||Pakke Tiger Reserve|
|5||Assam||Manas Tiger Reserve|
|6||Assam||Nameri National Park|
|7||Assam||Orang Tiger Reserve|
|8||Assam||Kaziranga National Park|
|9||Bihar||Valmiki National Park|
|10||Chhattisgarh||Udanti-Sitanadi Wildlife Sanctuary|
|11||Chhattisgarh||Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary|
|12||Chhattisgarh||Indravati Tiger Reserve|
|13||Jharkhand||Palamau Tiger Reserve|
|14||Karnataka||Bandipur Tiger Reserve|
|15||Karnataka||Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary|
|16||Karnataka||Dandeli-Anshi Tiger Reserve|
|17||Karnataka||Nagarahole National Park|
|18||Karnataka||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple Tiger reserve|
|19||Kerala||Periyar Tiger reserve|
|20||Kerala||Parambikulam Tiger reserve|
|21||Madhya Pradesh||Kanha Tiger reserve|
|22||Madhya Pradesh||Pench Tiger reserve|
|23||Madhya Pradesh||Bandhavgarh Tiger reserve|
|24||Madhya Pradesh||Panna Tiger reserve|
|25||Madhya Pradesh||Satpura Tiger reserve|
|26||Madhya Pradesh||Sanjay-Dubri Tiger reserve|
|27||Maharashtra||Melghat Tiger reserve|
|28||Maharashtra||Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve|
|29||Maharashtra||Pench Tiger Reserve|
|30||Maharashtra||Sahyadri Tiger Reserve|
|31||Maharashtra||Nagzira Tiger Reserve|
|32||Maharashtra||Bor Tiger Reserve|
|33||Mizoram||Dampa Tiger Reserve|
|34||Odisha||Similipal Tiger Reserve|
|35||Odisha||Satkosia Tiger Reserve|
|36||Rajasthan||Ranthambore Tiger Reserve|
|37||Rajasthan||Sariska Tiger Reserve|
|38||Rajasthan||Mukandra Hills Tiger Reserve|
|39||Tamil Nadu||Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve|
|40||Tamil Nadu||Anamalai Tiger Reserve (Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park)|
|41||Tamil Nadu||Mudumalai Tiger Reserve|
|42||Tamil Nadu||Sathyamangalam Tiger Reserve|
|43||Telangana||Kawal Tiger Reserve|
|44||Telangana||Amrabad Tiger Reserve|
|45||Uttar Pradesh||Dudhwa Tiger Reserve|
|46||Uttar Pradesh||Pilibhit Tiger Reserve|
|47||Uttar Pradesh||Amangarh Tiger Reserve (buffer zone of Corbett Tiger Reserve)|
|48||Uttarakhand||Jim Corbett National Park|
|49||Uttarakhand||Rajaji Tiger Reserve|
|50||West Bengal||Sunderban National Park|
|51||West Bengal||Buxa Tiger Reserve|
List of Tiger reserves in India:- Download PDF Here
Tiger Reserves in India Map
The geographical location of Tiger Reserves in India is shown below:
As seen in the map, it is evident that the tiger reserves in India are mostly in the Central and Eastern parts. It is necessary on the part of the inhabitants to help the government to establish more Tiger reserves in the Western areas as well.
|UPSC Syllabus||UPSC Books|
|IAS Exam||UPSC Notes|
|Government Exams||List of Elephant reserves in India|
|Biosphere reserves in India|
New Tiger Reserves
Recently, the National Tiger Conservation Authority has agreed for the formation of four new tiger reserves in:
- Sunabeda (Odisha),
- Ratapani (Madhya Pradesh)
- Orang (Assam)
- Guru Ghasidas (Chhattisgarh)
The respective state governments have been directed to send the proposal for announcing Suhelwa(Uttar Pradesh), Cauvery MM Hills (Karnataka), Mhadei(Goa), Srivilliputhur Grizzled Giant Squirrel (Tamil Nadu) and Dibang (Arunachal Pradesh) as tiger reserves.
Major threats responsible for the declining of Tiger population
The Tigers are seen largely in the tropical forests of Asia. The recent reports generated by different international organizations show the tiger population is decreasing. According to the IUCN Red list, the tiger is listed as an endangered animal. The major threat faced by this species are Poaching, destruction of habitat, insufficient prey, etc. the tigers are killed for skins, bones, and meat.
The list of major threats to Tiger Population are:
- Man- animal conflict
- Hunting, poaching and illegal trade
- Habitat and loss of prey species
Man- animal conflict
Due to the anthropogenic activities, the tiger population has lost its habitat. The loss of habitat resulted in the reduction of their prey species. They started coming out of the forest and come to the village in search of prey.
Tiger those who came in search of its prey they attacked domestic animals, and human beings. In vengeance, tigers are often killed by angry human beings.
Hunting, illegal trade and poaching
Hunting of tigers is a huge issue faced by the tiger population from ancient times. Hunting stands as a symbol of status. The people used the bones, teeth of the tiger for commercial purpose which can also be named as illegal trade.
The body parts are used for medicinal purposes also. This has caused the utmost decline in tiger populations since 1930. Poaching is the next threat to the leftover tiger population.
The anthropogenic destructive activities have caused the devastation of habitat and prey species are the main long-term threats to the continuation of the declining tiger population in the country.
Man and animals are in competition for finding their own habitat. Tigers need large territories. Along with the habitat, tigers have also experienced a severe loss of prey species populations such as antelopes and deer.
The man has acquired the forest land to human settlements and industrial activities. This has ultimately resulted in completed destruction of animal habitats.
The same affected the climatic condition, harmony and poses a threat to the existence of human beings. The Ken-Betwa River interlinking project which intends to irrigate the drought-hit Bundelkhand region has also a reason for declining the number of Tiger population in India. According to the wildlife experts, the Panna Tiger Reserve which located near this place will have a greater impact due to the project.
Rise in population of Tiger
Recent years have seen a rise in the population of wild lions and tigers in India. The government has initiated many programs related to the conservation of the Tiger population in the country.
According to the World Wildlife Fund and the Global Tiger Forum, the figure of wild tigers has gone up to 3,890 which earlier was 3200.
The wildlife policy of India embraces conservation and protection through the provision of national parks and sanctuaries. This has assisted their sustainable growth and a drastic declining man-animal conflict. A proactive judiciary has shaped a well-built restriction against poachers.
India is now home to 70% of the total Global Tiger Population. The various strategies that are planned for implementation include the Tiger reintroduction, Landscape conservation, and habitat management, scrutinizing protocols, strategies for anti-poaching, Resource Mobilization and Modern equipment and technology for monitoring.
The anti-poaching strategies are also planned for implementation. Latest censuses show an augment in the number of tigers across the country in different National Parks which is evidence that preservation efforts do have an optimistic impact on the environment and wildlife.
Reasons for the rise in the population of Tiger
- Establishment of various programs and institutions like TraMCA, Project tiger, Project snow leopards, NGT, aiming at the protection of the tiger and its habitat.
- TraMCA, is a joint initiative of India and Bhutan for trans-boundary biodiversity preservation established in 2008.
- Providing suitable habitat with the availability of prey, water bodies, etc. So that Tiger doesn’t come out which results in man-animal conflict.
- Limiting the tourists to peripheral areas and not core areas where Tiger mate and small cubs generally are taken care of.
- Better trained and efficient Forest administrators and rangers to deal with the issue of hunting and poaching.
- People participation in the conservation of tiger and establishments of Vanya Prani Saathi for the same.
Biodiversity Conservation methods
In Situ Conservation Methods: In this method, the protection of species in their natural habitats is considered the aptest means of conserving biodiversity. Preserving the areas where the populations of species subsist naturally is a primary condition for the conservation of biodiversity.
Ex Situ Conservation Methods: It is the conservation of elements of biological diversity exterior their natural habitats.
Tiger conservation initiatives in India
A vigorous Tiger population shows the strength of the ecosystem and self-sustenance which are the key objectives of Project Tiger under the National Tiger Conservation Authority.
By launching the Project Tiger, the Government of India has taken a revolutionary initiative for conserving its national animal. It was launched in 1973. It is a 100% Centrally Sponsored Scheme of the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change. The Project Tiger is administered by The National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA). It is a statutory body of the Ministry with an overall supervisory and coordination part, performing capacities as gave in the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972.
National Tiger Conservation Authority
The National Tiger Conservation Authority is constituted under the provisions of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 for escalating tiger conservation. It is a statutory body working under the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change. The Authority has been satisfying its mandate within the sphere of the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972 for strengthening tiger conservation in the country.
The Project Tiger launched in 1973 is a 100% centrally sponsored scheme. It gives fund help to the ‘tiger range States’, for in-situ conservation of tigers in the chosen tiger reserves. It has put the endangered tiger on a guaranteed path of revival by protecting it from extinction. The Project Tiger aims to promote an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of tiger reserves, with inclusive people participation.
The habitats covered under Project tiger are:
- Central India conservation unit
- Shivalik-terai conservation unit
- North East conservation unit
- Sariska conservation unit
- Sunder bans conservation unit
- Eastern Ghats conservation unit
- Western Ghats conservation unit
Objectives of Project Tiger
- To guarantee a viable population of tigers for financial, scientific, aesthetic, social and ecological values.
- Limit the elements which lead to the reduction of tiger habitat and to tone down them by suitable strategy.
- Site-particular eco-development to decrease the dependency of local individuals and indigenous people on tiger reserve
Core and Buffer Area
- Core Area: The core area has the legal status of Wildlife Sanctuary or National Park. These areas are free of all forestry operations and human activities.
- Buffer Area: These multi-purpose areas consist of forest and non- land and subjected to conservation-oriented land use.
Benefits of Project Tiger
The Project Tiger has put the tiger on a certain course of revival from the edge of destruction. The population of tigers in the country has augmented considerably after the establishment of the project. It has contributed towards numerous indescribable environmental profits to society. The project has opened a wide door of tourism and thereby employment opportunities. This initiative has brought participation of local people and their participation has made the habitat to revive.
International Cooperation for Tiger conservation
- To control the Transboundary illegal trade in wildlife and conservation, India signed a bilateral understanding with Nepal.
- A tiger conservation protocol was signed by India with China
- For the conservation of tigers in the Sunderban region, India has signed a protocol with Bangladesh.
- With Russia, India has constituted a group on tiger and leopard conservation.
- India is a stakeholder of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
- India doesn’t support captive breeding of tigers.
UPSC previous year Questions
The UPSC has asked a question regarding tiger reserve in UPSC civil service main examination. This shows the importance of the topic. Along with that, we are providing probable UPSC question for practicing.
The issue of tourism in core areas of tiger reserve forests in the country is a subject matter of debate. Critically examine various aspects of this issue, keeping in view relevant recent judicial pronouncements.
Click here to get the UPSC Previous Year Question Paper
Practice questions for UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam
Practice question for UPSC IAS Prelims Exam
Match the following
- Sanjay Dubri A. Uttar Pradesh
- Palamau B. Jharkhand
- Namdapha C. Madhya Pradesh
- Amangarh D. Arunachal Pradesh
- Dampa E. Mizoram
Choose the correct option.
- 1-B, 2-C, 3-D, 4-A, 5-E
- 1-A, 2-B, 3-D, 4-C, 5-E
- 1-C, 2-A, 3-E, 4-B, 5-D
- 1-C, 2-B, 3-D, 4-A, 5-E
Practice question for UPSC IAS Mains Exam
With reference to man-animal, what are the socio-economic impacts of man-animal conflicts and the reason for increasing the man-animal conflicts and what are the steps taken by concerned authorities?