Biosphere Reserve in India

Biosphere Reserves in India UPSC

Biosphere reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal or marine ecosystems or its amalgamation. The biosphere reserve network was launched in 1976, two years after the initiation of MAB- Man and the biosphere programme. Government of India established 18 biospheres in the country (categories generally relating to IUCN Category V Protected areas).

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FUNCTIONS OF BIOSPHERE RESERVE

Each biosphere reserve is supposed to fulfill three harmonizing functions:

  1. Conservation function: to conserve genetic resources, species, ecosystems and landscapes
  2. Development function: to promote sustainable human development and economic
  3. Logistic support function: to provide support for research and analyzing the issues of conservation and sustainable development.

THREE ZONES OF BIOSPHERES

A Zonation System

Biosphere reserves have three unified zones that aim to fulfill three harmonizing and mutually reinforcing functions:

  1. The core area:  It involves an entirely secured and protected ecosystem that contributes to the preservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.
  2. The buffer zone: It encompasses or adjoins the core areas. It is utilized for activities compatible with sound ecological practices that can fortify scientific research, monitoring, training and education.
  3. The transition area:  It is the part of the reserve where the greatest activity is permitted to promote economic and human development that is sustainable.

WORLD NETWORK OF BIOSPHERE RESERVES

The World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers globally chosen protected areas. It consists of a vibrant and interactive network of sites of distinction. It promotes the harmonious assimilation of people and nature for sustainable development through different ways. If one country declares one area as a biosphere reserve, it can nominate the same to under the UNESCOs Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme. If UNESCO accepts the proposal of the government, the biosphere reserve will enter into the World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR).

10 of the 18 biosphere reserves in India are a part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves which is based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. Recently, the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve was incorporated at the International Coordinating Council of the Man and the Biosphere program of UNESCO that ended up in Peru on March 19. With the addition of the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, 10 of the 18 biosphere reserves in the country have made it to the list.

YEAR

NAME

STATES

2001

Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve

West Bengal

2009

Simlipal Biosphere Reserve

Odisha

2009

Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve

Madhya Pradesh

2009

Nokrek Biosphere Reserve

Meghalaya

2000

Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve

Tamil Nadu

2004

Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve

Uttarakhand

2001

Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve

Tamil Nadu

2013

Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve

Great Nicobar

2012

Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve

Chhattisgarh

2016

Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve

Kerala and Tamil Nadu

BIOSPHERE RESERVES OF INDIA

Biosphere reserves are announced by the state or central governments by notification. The Governments can nominate them under the UNESCOs Man and Biosphere (MAB) Programme after its establishment as a biosphere reserve. There are 18 biosphere reserves in India.

No.

Name of Biosphere Reserve

Year of Notification

Location (States)

1

Nilgiri

1986

Part of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka).

2

Nanda Devi

1988

Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Bageshwar districts (Uttarakhand).

3

Nokrek

1988

Part of Garo hills (Meghalaya).

4

Great Nicobar

1989

Southern most islands of Andaman And Nicobar (A&N Islands).

5

Gulf of Mannar

1989

Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu).

6

Manas

1989

Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and Darang districts (Assam).

7

Sunderbans

1989

Part of delta of Ganges and Brahamaputra river system

(West Bengal).

8

Simlipal

1994

Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa).

9

Dibru-Saikhowa

1997

Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts (Assam).

10

Dehang-Dibang

1998

Part of Siang and Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.

11

Pachmarhi

1999

Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.

12

Khangchendzonga

2000

Parts of Khangchendzonga hills and Sikkim.

13

Agasthyamalai

2001

Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries and their adjoining areas in Kerala.

14

Achanakamar –    Amarkantak

2005

Covers parts of Anupur and Dindori districts of M.P. and parts of Bilaspur districts of Chhattishgarh State.

15

Kachchh

2008

Part of Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendra Nagar and Patan Civil Districts of Gujarat State.

16

Cold Desert

2009

Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu&Kibber Wildlife Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh.

17

Seshachalam Hills

2010

Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh.

18

Panna

2011

Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh.

Location of biosphere reserves in india

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