Vice President of India - Indian Polity Notes

The post of Vice-President of India is modelled on the lines of American Vice-President. In India, Vice-President has a second-highest office in the country. Article 63 of the Indian Constitution mentions the post of Vice-President. This topic is important for IAS Exam as it forms an important section of Political Science subject in all the three stages of exam – Prelims, Mains and Interview.

This article will talk about the topic ‘Vice-President’ in detail. Aspirants will also read about the election of Vice President of India, his qualifications and term of his office. They may also download the ‘Vice President’ notes PDF below.

Vice President of India – Indian Polity Notes:- Download PDF Here

How the Vice President is elected in India?

There is no direct election for the Vice-President of India however, he/she is indirectly elected by an Electoral College. The election process is quite similar to that of the President of India but the electoral college that elects President is different from the electoral college responsible for the election of Vice-President of India.

The difference between the electoral college that elects President and the one electing Vice-President of India is given below:

  1. In electoral college for Vice President, both elected and nominated members of both the Houses of Parliament take part. In presidential elections, nominated members are not a part of the electoral college.
  2. For Vice President’s elections, states have no role to play unlike in President’s elections where state legislative assemblies’ elected members are a part of the electoral college.

Note: The principle of election used in Vice President’s elections is ‘Proportional Representation’ by means of a single transferable vote. (It is similar to that of President’s.)

Who can be a Vice President of India?

An Indian citizen can qualify for the post of Vice President if he is 35 years old or more. Another qualification for a candidate to run for vice-presidential elections is to be qualified to be elected as Rajya Sabha member. An office of profit cannot be held by the Vice President of India. The qualifications of this post are on the same lines of Presidential qualifications.

Who participates in Vice President election?

An electoral college comprising below-given categories of people elect the Vice President. The mode of election hence is termed as ‘indirect election’. The principle of election used is Proportional Representation by means of Single Transferrable Vote.

  1. Elected members of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
  2. Nominated members of both Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.

Note:

  • There can be no more than 2 nominated members in Lok Sabha and 12 in Rajya Sabha. (To know more on differences between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, aspirants may check the linked article.)
  • State Legislative Assemblies in case of unilateral legislatures and State legislative councils along with Assemblies in case of bilateral legislatures; don’t participate in the election of Vice President

Who is qualified to become Vice President of India?

An Indian Citizen who has completed 35 years of age is qualified to become the Vice-President of India given, he is also qualified to be a Rajya Sabha member. However, he should not be a member of either Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha and if he is elected as Vice President when he has a seat in either of the house, he is deemed to have vacated that seat on his first day in the office. He also is not allowed to hold any office of profit under union government, state government, public authority and local authority.

Note: The following people are also qualified to become the Vice President of India:

  • Sitting President of India
  • Sitting Vice President of India
  • Governor of State
  • MPs/MLAs

What is the term of office of Vice President?

From the date, he enters his office, Vice President holds the position for five years. However, he can resign before five years by handing over his resignation to the President. The other ways where a vacancy is created in the office of Vice President are given below:

  • When he completes his term of five years
  • When he resigns
  • When he is removed
  • On his death
  • When his election is declared void

Is Vice President also impeached as President of India?

No, unlike President of India who can be impeached formally; there is no formal impeachment for Vice President. Rajya Sabha simply can pass a resolution with a majority and Lok Sabha can pass it. Also, unlike President of India who can be impeached on the ground of ‘Violation of Constitution,’ there is no ground mentioned in the constitution for the removal of Vice President of India.

Note: Supreme Court decides election disputes related to the office of Vice President

Questions related to the Vice President of India for UPSC

There are a few facts related to VP of India which aspirants must be clear with for UPSC 2020 as these can help them fetch good scores if questions are asked from this section in prelims or mains.

Is Vice-President of India the Chairman of Rajya Sabha? Yes, Vice President is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
When can Vice President act as President? When the President’s office is vacant due to:

  • Resignation
  • Removal
  • Death
  • Absence due to illness
Can Vice President act as himself and as the President simultaneously? No, when he acts as President, his seat as Vice President is taken over by Deputy Chairperson of Rajya Sabha
What is the maximum period till Vice President serves as President? Maximum period of six months
What are the major articles related to Vice President in the Indian Constitution? The articles (63-71) are related to Vice President. (To know more about important articles in Indian Constitution, refer to the linked article.)
Has any amendment made in the constitution in relation to the office of Vice President? 11th Constitutional Amendment changed the way of election of Vice President. Originally, Vice President has to be elected by the two houses that have to assemble in a joint-sitting
Can Vice President be re-elected? Yes, he/she can be
What is the Vice President’s salary? Parliament is entitled to fix Vice President’s salary. The current salary is Rs. 1.25 lakh which he/she draws as a chairperson of Rajya Sabha
Any Vice-President who has served two terms or more than two terms? Dr. S. Radhakrishnan (1952-1962) & Mohammad Hamid Ansari (2007-2017)

The topic ‘Vice President’ should be read carefully by the aspirants. It should be followed by the topic, ‘President.’ The relevant articles to Indian Polity are given below.

Vice President of India – Indian Polity Notes:- Download PDF Here

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