Geography questions in UPSC GS Mains in 2019 constituted 30%-40% of the questions. Geography is an important subject in the IAS mains exam. It is also a scoring portion and candidates can score well here if they prepare adequately.
In this article, we bring you Geography questions that were asked in the general studies paper 1 of the UPSC mains exam from 2013 to 2019.
Geography question paper- UPSC Mains 2013-19
The questions have been divided into physical geography, climate, resources, urbanization and industrial location.
You can go through Geography Questions for UPSC Mains and get a fair idea about the kind of questions asked by the UPSC each year.
You should relate current affairs and the UPSC syllabus so that you can predict questions for the forthcoming exam.
For instance, in 2013 there was a question on the naming of cyclones because Cyclone Phailin had occurred that year. Similarly, prepare questions keeping in mind the current events and happenings that frequent the newspapers.
- How can the mountain ecosystem be restored from the negative impact of development initiatives and tourism?
- “The Himalayas are highly prone to landslides.” Discuss the causes and suggest suitable measures of mitigation.
- Explain the formation of thousands of islands in Indonesian and Philippines archipelagos.
- Why are the world’s fold mountain systems located along the margins of continents? Bring out the association between the global distribution of Fold Mountains and the earthquakes and volcanoes.
- What do you understand by the theory of continental drift? Discuss the prominent evidences in its support.
- There is no formation of deltas by rivers of the Western Ghats. Why?
- Major hot deserts in northern hemisphere are located between 20-30 degree north and on the western side of the continents. Why?
- Bring out the causes for more frequent landslides in the Himalayas than in Western Ghats.
- Assess the impact of global warming on the coral life system with examples.
- How does the cryosphere affect global climate?
- What characteristics can be assigned to monsoon climate that succeeds in feeding more than 50 percent of the world population residing in Monsoon Asia?
- Discuss the concept of air mass and explain its role in macro-climatic changes.
- Explain the factors responsible for the origin of ocean currents. How do they influence regional climates, fishing and navigation?
- How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes? Discuss.
- Tropical cyclones are largely confined to South China Sea, Bay of Bengal and Gulf of Mexico. Why?
- Most of the unusual climatic happenings are explained as an outcome of the El-Nino effect. Do you agree?
- Bring out the relationship between the shrinking Himalayan glaciers and the symptoms of climate change in the Indian subcontinent.
- The recent cyclone on the east coast of India was called “Phailin”. How are the tropical cyclones named across the world?
- Bring out the causes for the formation of heat islands in the urban habitat of the world.
- What do you understand by the phenomenon of temperature inversion in meteorology? How does it affect the weather and the habitants of the place?
- Discuss the causes of depletion of mangroves and explain their importance in maintaining coastal ecology.
- What is water stress? How and why does it differ regionally in India?
- How do ocean currents and water masses differ in their impacts on marine life and the coastal environment? Give suitable examples.
- Why is India taking keen in resources of Arctic region?
- What are the consequences of spreading of “Dead Zones on Marine Ecosystem?
- Defining blue resources, explain the problems and strategies for pisciculture development in India.
- Account for variations in oceanic salinity and discuss its multi-dimensional effects.
- In what way can floods be converted into a sustainable source of irrigation and all-weather inland navigation in India?
- “In spite of adverse environmental impact, coal mining is still inevitable for development”. Discuss. (150 words)
- The effective management of land and water resources will drastically reduce the human miseries. Explain.
- South China Sea has assumed great geopolitical significance in the present context. Comment.
- Present an account of the Indus Water Treaty and examine its ecological, economic and political implications in the context of changing bilateral relations.
- Enumerate the problems and prospects of inland water transport in India.
- In what way micro-watershed Development projects help in water conservation in drought prone and semi-arid regions of India.
- What are the economic significances of discovery of oil in Arctic Sea and its possible environmental consequences?
- India is well endowed with fresh water resources. Critically examine why it still suffers from water scarcity.
- The states of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand arc reaching the limits of their ecological carrying capacity due to tourism. Critically evaluate.
- Critically evaluate the various resources of the oceans which can be harnessed to meet the resource crisis in the world.
- How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa?
- With growing scarcity of fossil fuels, the atomic energy is gaining more and more significance in India. Discuss the availability of raw material required for the generation of atomic energy in India and in the world.
- It is said the India has substantial reserves of shale oil and gas, which can feed the needs of country for quarter century. However, tapping of the resources doesn’t appear to be high on the agenda. Discuss critically the availability and issues involved.
- How is efficient and affordable urban mess transport key to the rapid economic development of India?
- With a brief background of quality of urban life in India, introduce the objectives and strategy of the ‘Smart City Programme’.
- Major cities of India are becoming more vulnerable to flood conditions. Discuss.
- Mumbai, Delhi and Kolkata are the three mega cities of the country but the air pollution is much more serious problem in Delhi as compared to the other two. Why is this so?
- Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart villages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration.
- Discussion the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanization in India.
- Can the strategy of regional resource-based manufacturing help in promoting employment in India?
- Discuss the factors for the localisation of agro-based food processing industries of North-West India.
What is the significance of Industrial Corridors in India?Identifying the industrial corridors, explain their main characteristics.
Petroleum refineries are not necessarily located nearer to crude oil producing areas, particularly in many of the developing countries. Explain its implications.
- Whereas the British planters had developed tea gardens all along the Shivaliks and Lesser Himalayas from Assam to Himachal Pradesh, in effect they did not succeed beyond the Darjeeling area. Explain.
- Account for the change in the spatial pattern of the Iron and Steel industry in the world.
- Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water?
- Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in the Southern states of India? Discuss with justification.
- Analyze the factors for highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India.