NCERT Notes: Geography – INDIA: CLIMATE, VEGETATION AND WILDLIFE

Subject: Geography
Topic: India : Climate, Vegetation And Wildlife

India : Climate, Vegetation And Wildlife
Weather
  • It is about the day to day changes in the atmosphere. It includes changes in temperature, rainfall and sunshine etc.
Climate
  • It is about the average weather condition, which have been measured over many years.
  • The climate of a place is affected by its,
    • Location
    • Altitude
    • Distance from the sea
    • Relief

The major seasons recognized in India:

  • Cold Weather Season (Winter) – (December to February) The sun rays do not fall directly in the region. As a result the temperatures are quite low in northern India.
  • Hot Weather Season (Summer)- (March to May) In the hot weather season sun rays more or less directly fall in this region. Temperature becomes very high.
  • Southwest Monsoon Season (Rainy)- (June to September) This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon. The winds blow from Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture with them. When these winds strike the mountain barriers, rainfall occurs.
  • Season of Retreating Monsoon (Autumn)- (October and November) Winds move back from the mainland to the Bay of Bengal. This is the season of the retreating monsoons. The southern parts of India, particularly Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh receive rainfall in this season.
Natural Vegetation

The grasses, shrubs and trees, which grow on their own without interference or help from human beings are called natural vegetation.

Tropical Rain Forest

  • Tropical Rain Forests occur in the areas which receive heavy rainfall.
  • They are so dense that sunlight doesn’t reach the ground.
  • Many species of trees are found in these forests, which shed their leaves at different times of the year.
  • They always appear green and are called evergreen forest as you may notice.
  • Important trees found in these forests are mahogany, ebony and rosewood.
  • Andaman and Nicobar Islands, parts of North-Eastern states and a narrow strip of the Western slope of the Western Ghats are home of these forests.

Tropical Deciduous Forests

  • In a large part of our country, we have this type of forest. These forests are also called monsoon forests.
  • They are less dense. They shed their leaves at a particular time of the year.
  • Important trees of these forests are sal, teak, peepal, neem and shisham.
  • They are found in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and in parts of Maharashtra.

Thorny Bushes

  1. This type of vegetation is found in dry areas of the country.
  2. The leaves are in the form of spines to reduce the loss of water. Cactus, khair, babool, keekar are important trees.
  3. They are found in the states of Rajasthan, Punjab, Haryana, Eastern slopes of Western Ghats and Gujarat.

Mountain Vegetation

  • A wide range of species is found in the mountains according to the variation in height. With increase in height, the temperature falls. At a height between 1500 metres and 2500 metres most of the trees are conical in shape. These trees are called coniferous trees.
  • Chir, Pine and Deodar are important trees of these forests.

Mangrove Forests

  • These forests can survive in saline water. They are found mainly in Sunderbans in West Bengal and in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
Wild Life
  • The tiger is our national animal. It is found in various parts of the country. Gir forest in Gujarat is the home of Asiatic lions. Elephants and one-horned rhinoceroses roam in the forests of Assam. Elephants are also found in Kerala and Karnataka. Camels and wild asses are found in the Great Indian desert and the Rann of Kuchchh respectively. Wild goats, snow leopards, bears, etc. are found in the Himalayan region. Besides these, many other animals are found in our country such as monkey, wolf, jackal, nilgai, cheetah, etc.
  • India is equally rich in bird life. The peacock is our national bird. Other common birds are parrots, pigeons, mynah, geese, bulbul, and ducks.
  • There are several hundreds of species of snakes found in India. Cobras and kraits are important among them.
  • In order to protect them many national parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves have been set up. The Government has also started Project Tiger and Project Elephant to protect these animals.

 

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