Marine Protected Areas in India

India’s coastline stretches for 8118 km, covering an exclusive economic zone 2.02 million square kilometres of area. The continental shelf of India extends to 372,424 square km across 9 states and 7 union territories. As one of the 17 mega-biodiverse countries of the world, it faces unique challenges in protecting its biodiversity.

Marine Protected Areas in India are the area defined under IUCN Guidelines. They limit anthropogenic activities and exploitation of resources in these areas. The definition of Protected Area provided by IUCN has been broadly accepted across the world and is an important topic for the UPSC Geography Syllabus and topics related to the Environment.

In this article, we have provided a list of marine protected areas and marine national parks in India.

To know more about Geography, check out:

Marine Protected Areas in India (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

List of Marine Protected Areas

The following is the list of marine protected areas in or near the mainland of India:

State/ UT’s Name of Marine Protected Area Category
Maharashtra Thane Creek Flamingo Sanctuary Marine Sanctuary
West Bengal West Sundarbans Marine Sanctuary
Kerala Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu Community Reserve Community Reserve
Dadra & Nagar Haveli Dadra & Nagar Haveli Wildlife Sanctuary Marine Sanctuary
Odisha Bhitarkanika Marine National Park
Odisha Gahirmatha Marine Sanctuary
Gujarat Gulf of Kachchh Marine National Park
Daman & Diu Fudam Marine Sanctuary
Andhra Pradesh Krishna Marine Sanctuary
Goa Chorao Island Marine Sanctuary
Maharashtra Malvan Marine Wildlife Sanctuary Marine Sanctuary
Odisha Chilika (Nalabana) Marine Sanctuary
Odisha Balukhand Konark Marine Sanctuary
West Bengal Sundarbans Marine National Park
Gujarat Khijadia Marine Sanctuary
Andhra Pradesh/Tamil Nadu Pulicat Lake Marine Sanctuary
Tamil Nadu Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park
Andhra Pradesh Coringa Marine Sanctuary
West Bengal Haliday Island Marine Sanctuary
West Bengal Sajnakhali Marine Sanctuary
West Bengal Lothian Island Marine Sanctuary
Odisha Bhitarkanika Marine Sanctuary
Tamil Nadu Point Calimere Marine Sanctuary

Marine Sanctuaries and Protected Areas in Island Territories of India

The following table lists the protected areas and sanctuaries located on the Islands of India:

Islands Name of Marine Protected Areas Category
Lakshadweep Pitti Marine Sanctuary
Andaman & Nicobar Islands Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
Kwangtung Island Marine Sanctuary
South Button Island Marine National Park
North Button Island Marine National Park
Mount Harriet Marine National Park
Middle Button Island Marine National Park
Saddle Peak Marine National Park
Mahatma Gandhi Marine Marine National Park
Arial Island Marine Sanctuary
Bamboo Island Marine Sanctuary
Barren Island Marine Sanctuary
Batti Malv Island Marine Sanctuary
Belle Island Marine Sanctuary
Bennett Island Marine Sanctuary
Bingham Island Marine Sanctuary
Blister Island Marine Sanctuary
Bluff Island Marine Sanctuary
Bondville Island Marine Sanctuary
Brush Island Marine Sanctuary
Buchanan Island Marine Sanctuary
Campbell Bay Marine National Park
Channel Island Marine Sanctuary
Cinque Islands Marine Sanctuary
Clyde Island Marine Sanctuary
Cone Island Marine Sanctuary
Curlew (B.P.) Island Marine Sanctuary
Curlew Island Marine Sanctuary
Defence Island Marine Sanctuary
Dot Island Marine Sanctuary
Dotterel Island Marine Sanctuary
Duncan Island Marine Sanctuary
East Island Marine Sanctuary
East Of Inglis Island Marine Sanctuary
Egg Island Marine Sanctuary
Elat Island Marine Sanctuary
Entrance Island Marine Sanctuary
Galathea National Park Marine National Park
Gander Island Marine Sanctuary
Girjan Island Marine Sanctuary
Goose Island Marine Sanctuary
Hump Island Marine Sanctuary
Interview Island Marine Sanctuary
James Island Marine Sanctuary
Jungle Island Marine Sanctuary
Kyd Island Marine Sanctuary
Landfall Island Marine Sanctuary
Latouche Island Marine Sanctuary
Lohabarrack Marine Sanctuary
Mangrove Island Marine Sanctuary
Mask Island Marine Sanctuary
Mayo Island Marine Sanctuary
Megapode Island Marine Sanctuary
Montgomery Island Marine Sanctuary
Narcondam Island Marine Sanctuary
North Brother Island Marine Sanctuary
North Island Marine Sanctuary
North Reef Island Marine Sanctuary
Oliver Island Marine Sanctuary
Orchid Island Marine Sanctuary
Ox Island Marine Sanctuary
Oyster Island-I Marine Sanctuary
Oyster Island-II Marine Sanctuary
Paget Island Marine Sanctuary
Parkinson Island Marine Sanctuary
Passage Island Marine Sanctuary
Patric Island Marine Sanctuary
Peacock Island Marine Sanctuary
Pitman Island Marine Sanctuary
Point Island Marine Sanctuary
Potanma Islands Marine Sanctuary
Ranger Island Marine Sanctuary
Reef Island Marine Sanctuary
Roper Island Marine Sanctuary
Ross Island Marine Sanctuary
Rowe Island Marine Sanctuary
Sandy Island Marine Sanctuary
Sea Serpent Island Marine Sanctuary
Shark Island Marine Sanctuary
Shearme Island Marine Sanctuary
Sir Hugh Rose Island Marine Sanctuary
Sisters Island Marine Sanctuary
Snake Island-I Marine Sanctuary
Snake Island-II Marine Sanctuary
South Brother Island Marine Sanctuary
South Reef Island Marine Sanctuary
South Sentinel Island Marine Sanctuary
Spike Island-I Marine Sanctuary
Spike Island-II Marine Sanctuary
Stoat Island Marine Sanctuary
Surat Island Marine Sanctuary
Swamp Island Marine Sanctuary
Table (Dalgarno) Island Marine Sanctuary
Table (Excelsior) Island Marine Sanctuary
Talbagicha Island Marine Sanctuary
Temple Island Marine Sanctuary
Tillongchang Island Marine Sanctuary
Tree Island Marine Sanctuary
Trilby Island Marine Sanctuary
Tuft Island Marine Sanctuary
Turtle Islands Marine Sanctuary
West Island Marine Sanctuary
Wharf Island Marine Sanctuary
White Cliff Island Marine Sanctuary
Galathea Bay Marine Sanctuary
Cuthbert Bay Marine Sanctuary

A Marine Protected Area is a zone in the ocean or littoral area where anthropogenic activities are regulated more strictly than the surrounding waters. These places are given special protections for marine wildlife by the national, regional, state and local authorities.

India’s biodiversity protection programmes have been highly successful with 600 protected areas across 161,221 sq.km. Protected areas account for 4.9% of the country’s total geographical area. Recently, the Ministry of Environment and Forests has proposed to create a network of marine protected areas. In this scenario, an IAS aspirant should know what are marine protected areas and major marine protected areas in India.

Marine Protected Areas in India (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

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