World History: Key Terms in Russian Revolution Part-I

The Russian Revolution is an important topic in world history for the UPSC exam. Even though world history is a small part of the IAS syllabus, certain topics in it such as the Russian Revolution cannot be avoided in your IAS preparation. In this article, you are given a few important terms in the Russian Revolution.

Russo-Japanese War

  • 1904-1905
  • Japanese defeat Russians 
  • It developed out of the rivalry between Japan and Russia for dominance in Manchuria and Korea.

Trans-Siberian Railroad

  • The longest single rail system in Russia
  • It stretches from Moscow east to Vladivostok.
  • It was built between 1891 and 1916.
  • It had great significance in the military, economic, and royal history of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
  • This brought Russia and Japan into conflict with each other about ambitions in Korea and Manchuria.

1905 Revolution

  • It was an uprising that was influential in convincing Tsar Nicholas II to alter the Russian government into a constitutional monarchy from an autocracy.

Bloody Sunday

  • 9th January 1905
  • Massacre in St. Petersburg of peaceful protesters marking the commencement of the ferocious stage of the Russian Revolution of 1905.

October Manifesto

  • October Manifesto was issued by the emperor Nicholas II.
  • The manifesto assured the formation of a State, a national parliament: Duma, elected by the general public of Russia, to participate in the devising and passing of laws.
  • It also defined improvements to individual rights and freedom.

The Black Hundreds

  • Russian conservative, anti-revolutionary, and anti-Semitic groups shaped in Russia during and after the Russian Revolution of 1905.

Duma

  • National parliament created in Russia in the repercussion of the revolution of 1905.

Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin

  • He was appointed as the prime minister in 1906.
  • He sustained Monarchy and believed that agrarian reform was essential if the problem of the peasant rebellion was to be cured.
  • He introduced extensive agrarian reforms to enhance the lawful and economic status of the peasantry and the general economy and political permanency of imperial Russia.

1917 Revolution

  • This was a pair of revolutions that happened in Russia
    • First in February which overthrew the imperial government
    • Second in October placed the Bolsheviks in power
  • This revolution dismantled the Tsarist autocracy.

Red Armies

  • After the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917, the Communist government created a Soviet army.
  • The name Red Army was abandoned in 1946.

White Armies/movement

  • It also known as White Guard.
  • It was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks.
  • It was created by General Lavr Kornilov.

Russian Civil War

  • Red Army effectively defended the newly created Bolshevik government led by Vladimir I Lenin against several Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies.

New Economic Policy

  • The economic policy of the government of the Soviet Union from 1921 to 1928.
  • It represents a temporary withdrawal from its previous policy of extreme centralization and rigid socialism.

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