The National Mission for Sustainable Habitat was launched in 2010. This program predominantly concentrates on how cities can cope with the new challenges that urban dwellers will have to face due to climate change. National Mission for Sustainable Habitat’s main goal is to make sure that cities are resilient to face the aftermath effects of climate change. This topic would be of importance in the IAS Exam for both Prelims and Mains.
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The objective of the National Mission for Sustainable Habitat (NMSH)
- Design the buildings in such a way that energy demand is optimized and make sure that there are improvements in energy efficiency.
- Facilitate the growth of small and medium cities – make sure there is a better urban planning, and convenient public transport.
- Management of solid and liquid waste, special focus on the development of technology for generating power from waste.
- Improve advance warning systems to tackle extreme weather, improve the ability of habitats to adapt to climate change by improving the resilience of infrastructure, community-based disaster management.
- Changes in the legal and regulatory framework
4 flagship missions or programmes of the Ministry of Urban Development
- Atal Mission on Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
- Swachh Bharat Mission
- Smart Cities Mission
- Urban Transport Programme
As per a report prepared by TERI for Ministry of Urban Development, the successful implementation of the above flagship missions has a potential for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions amounting to 133 million tonnes of carbon dioxide by 2021 and 270 million tonnes of carbon dioxide by 2031.
Atal Mission on Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT)
The focus of this mission is in the following areas:
- Water supply
- Sewerage and septage management
- Stormwater drainage to reduce flooding
- Non-motorized urban transport, an example would be cycling.
- Green space/parks
How many cities have been selected under AMRUT?
500 cities have been selected
Categories of cities selected under AMRUT
- All towns and cities having a population above 1 lakh, as per 2011 census, including cantonment boards (civilian population)
- Any capital cities, and towns of states or UT’s that are not covered in the above category
- All cities or towns which comes under the category of heritage cities as classified by MoHUA under the HRIDAY scheme.
- 13 cities and towns on the stem of the main rivers having population more than 75,000 but less than 1 lakh
- 10 cities which come under the category of hill states, islands and tourist destinations (only one from each of those states)
Providing water supply to everyone is one of the priority sectors of this mission. At the inception, only 64% had coverage of water supply. By the end of this mission, it aims to cover 100% of households by providing new water tap connections.
Sewerage and Septage Management
When Mission AMRUT was introduced, the status of sewerage coverage was 31%, by the end of the mission, it aims to cover 62% of households.
The project covers the following
- Underground network of sewerage systems.
- Plants for sewage treatment
- Old sewerage system would be restored.
- Treatment plants
- Reuse of water through recycling.
Storm Water Drainage
The purpose of the stormwater drain is to reduce flooding, waterlogging problems in cities. Hence emphasis would be given for construction and maintenance of stormwater drains.
The drainage component includes the construction of new networks of primary and secondary drainage, building robust drainage network to all water choke points which obstructs the flow till the endpoint. Nallahs and drains would be rejuvenated with the installation of filters.
Non-Motorized Urban Transport
The focus of this mission is to provide a healthy environment for citizens. Increased amenity values of cities by developing greenery and well maintained open spaces with child and elderly-friendly featured in all mission cities.
Reduce pollution by switching to public transport or constructing facilities for non-motorized urban transport.
The components of non-motorized transport are sidewalks, foot overbridges, multi-level parking.
Green Spaces and Parks
Cities would be carefully planned and developed to make sure that better amenities like parks are provided to senior citizens and children for recreation and creation of more green spaces so that the quality of life is improved due to lesser pollution.
1st phase of implementation
90 cities of Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Rajasthan have been allocated funds under the 1st phase of the mission. Huge funds have been allocated under the State Annual Action Plans (SAAP) for these states for period 2015-16. At each city level, a city mission management unit (CMMU) is proposed to be set up which will assist the Urban Local Body (ULB) in terms of staff and technology.
Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Civil Service Exam by visiting the IAS Syllabus page.
Multiple Choice Question
Consider the following statements
- Urban climatology refers to a specific branch of climatology that is concerned with interactions between urban areas and the atmosphere, the effects they have on one another, and the varying spatial and temporal scales at which these processes (and responses) occur.
- Carbon dioxide, because of its role as a greenhouse gas has been described as “the leading pollutant” and “the worst climate pollutant”. Carbon dioxide is a natural component of the atmosphere, essential for plant life and given off by the human respiratory system.
- Water footprint measures the amount of water used to produce each of the goods and services we use. It can be measured for any process, like growing crops, for producing clothes, for the fuel we use in our travels, or for a multinational company.
- As per 2017 Global Risks Report of the World Economic Forum, in terms of impact on humanity, the water crisis is ranked as the 3rd most important global risk. India’s water footprint is 980 cubic metres per capita and contributes roughly 12 % of the world’s total water footprint.
Choose the correct answer from the below-given options
A) None of the above-given statements are true.
B) All the above-given statements are true
C) Only Statements 2, 3 and 4 are true
D) Only Statements 1, 2 and 3 are true.
Candidates can find the general pattern of the UPSC Exams by visiting the UPSC Syllabus 2020 page.