What is the 1st Amendment of the Indian Constitution?

The important provisions of the 1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951 are as follows:

  • Empowered the state to make special provisions for the advancement of socially and economically backward classes. 
  • Provided for the saving of laws providing for the acquisition of estates, etc., 
  • Added Ninth schedule to protect the land reform and other laws included in it from the judicial review. 
  • Added three more grounds of restrictions on freedom of speech and expression, viz., public order, friendly relations with foreign states and incitement to an offence. Also, made the restrictions ‘reasonable’ and thus, justiciable in nature. 
  • Provided that state trading and nationalisation of any trade or business by the state is not to be invalid on the ground of violation of the right to trade or business. 

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