 # NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths Chapter 5 Introduction to Euclid's Geometry Exercise 5.1

Understanding Euclidian Geometry is easy if students refer NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths Chapter 5 Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry Exercise 5.1 and 5.2. These exercises are designed to help you grasp the conceptual basis and solve numerical problems. Traditionally, Euclidian Geometry is an elementary concept but it has significance in various other fields of study. Therefore, it is crucial to have a good grasp of this concept. Students will find that this NCERT solution is one of the best resources to learn. This is due to the fact that the solutions are designed by a team of dedicated teachers with many years of experience. Consequently, NCERT Solutions is one of the best guides that you might come across for your studies. Important topics are presented in a simple, structured format. Moreover, complex jargons are broken down or explained in the content. Furthermore, content is refreshed regularly as per the prescribed CBSE syllabus.

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Exercise 5.2 Solutions – 2 Questions

## NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths Chapter 5 – Introduction to Euclid’s Geometry Exercise 5.1

1. Which of the following statements are true and which are false? Give reasons for your answers.

(i) Only one line can pass through a single point.

(ii) There are an infinite number of lines which pass through two distinct points.

(iii) A terminated line can be produced indefinitely on both the sides.

(iv) If two circles are equal, then their radii are equal.

(v) In Fig. 5.9, if AB = PQ and PQ = XY, then AB = XY. Solution:

(i) False

There can be infinite number of lines that can be drawn through a single point. Hence, the statement mentioned is False

(ii) False

Through two distinct points there can be only one line that can be drawn. Hence, the statement mentioned is False

(iii) True

A line that is terminated can be indefinitely produced on both sides as a line can be extended on both its sides infinitely. Hence, the statement mentioned is True.

(iv) True

The radii of two circles are equal when the two circles are equal. The circumference and the centre of both the circles coincide; and thus, the radius of the two circles should be equal. Hence, the statement mentioned is True.

(v) True

According to Euclid’s 1st axiom- “Things which are equal to the same thing are also equal to one another”. Hence, the statement mentioned is True.

2. Give a definition for each of the following terms. Are there other terms that need to be defined first? What are they, and how might you define them?

(i) parallel lines

(ii) perpendicular lines

(iii) line segment

(v) square

Solution:

Yes, there are other terms which need to be defined first, they are:

Plane: Flat surfaces in which geometric figures can be drawn are known are plane. A plane surface is a surface which lies evenly with the straight lines on itself.

Point: A dimensionless dot which is drawn on a plane surface is known as point. A point is that which has no part.

Line: A collection of points that has only length and no breadth is known as a line. And it can be extended on both directions. A line is breadth-less length.

(i) Parallel lines – Parallel lines are those lines which never intersect each other and are always at a constant distance perpendicular to each other. Parallel lines can be two or more lines.

(ii) Perpendicular lines – Perpendicular lines are those lines which intersect each other in a plane at right angles then the lines are said to be perpendicular to each other.

(iii) Line Segment – When a line cannot be extended any further because of its two end points then the line is known as a line segment. A line segment has 2 end points.

(iv) Radius of circle – A radius of a circle is the line from any point on the circumference of the circle to the center of the circle.

(v) Square – A quadrilateral in which all the four sides are said to be equal and each of its internal angle is right angles is called square.

3. Consider two ‘postulates’ given below:

(i) Given any two distinct points A and B, there exists a third point C which is in between A and B.

(ii) There exist at least three points that are not on the same line.

Do these postulates contain any undefined terms? Are these postulates consistent? Do they follow from Euclid’s postulates? Explain.

Solution:

Yes, these postulates contain undefined terms. Undefined terms in the postulates are:

– There are many points that lie in a plane. But, in the postulates given here, the position of the point C is not given, as of whether it lies on the line segment joining AB or not.

– On top of that, there is no information about whether the points are in same plane or not.

And

Yes, these postulates are consistent when we deal with these two situations:

– Point C is lying on the line segment AB in between A and B.

– Point C does not lie on the line segment AB.

4. If a point C lies between two points A and B such that AC = BC, then prove that AC = ½ AB. Explain by drawing the figure.

Solution: Given that, AC = BC

L.H.S+AC = R.H.S+AC

AC+AC = BC+AC

2AC = BC+AC

We know that, BC+AC = AB (as it coincides with line segment AB)

∴ 2 AC = AB (If equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal.)

⇒ AC = (½)AB.

5. In Question 4, point C is called a mid-point of line segment AB. Prove that every line segment has one and only one mid-point.

Solution: Let, AB be the line segment

Assume that points P and Q are the two different mid points of AB.

Now,

∴ P and Q are midpoints of AB.

Therefore,

AP = PB and AQ = QB.

also,

PB+AP = AB (as it coincides with line segment AB)

Similarly, QB+AQ = AB.

Now,

Adding AP to the L.H.S and R.H.S of the equation AP = PB

We get, AP+AP = PB+AP (If equals are added to equals, the wholes are equal.)

⇒ 2AP = AB — (i)

Similarly,

2 AQ = AB — (ii)

From (i) and (ii), Since R.H.S are same, we equate the L.H.S

2 AP = 2 AQ (Things which are equal to the same thing are equal to one another.)

⇒ AP = AQ (Things which are double of the same things are equal to one another.)

Thus, we conclude that P and Q are the same points.

This contradicts our assumption that P and Q are two different mid points of AB.

Thus, it is proved that every line segment has one and only one mid-point.

Hence Proved.

6. In Fig. 5.10, if AC = BD, then prove that AB = CD.

Solution: It is given, AC = BD

From the given figure, we get,

AC = AB+BC

BD = BC+CD

⇒ AB+BC = BC+CD [AC = BD, given]

We know that, according to Euclid’s axiom, when equals are subtracted from equals, remainders are also equal.

Subtracting BC from the L.H.S and R.H.S of the equation AB+BC = BC+CD, we get,

AB+BC-BC = BC+CD-BC

AB = CD

Hence Proved.

7. Why is Axiom 5, in the list of Euclid’s axioms, considered a ‘universal truth’? (Note that the question is not about the fifth postulate.)

Solution:

Axiom 5: The whole is always greater than the part.

For Example: A cake. When it is whole or complete, assume that it measures 2 pounds but when a part from it is taken out and measured, its weigh will be smaller than the previous measurement. So, the fifth axiom of Euclid is true for all the materials in the universe. Hence, Axiom 5, in the list of Euclid’s axioms, is considered a ‘universal truth.

Euclid’s Geometry is a system introduced by Euclid, an Alexandrian-Greek Mathematician way back in 300 BC. 2,000 years later, Euclid’s contributions still remain valid and it has been adopted in various applications, ranging from engineering to theoretical physics. Euclidian Geometry also has significant academic implications in disciplines of science and mathematics. Find out how Euclidean Geometry works and explore the 2000-year-old theorems. Browse other important NCERT Solutions For Class 9 Maths to help you practice various other mathematical concepts.

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## Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solution Class 9 Maths Ex 5.1

### What are parallel lines?

Parallel lines are those lines which never intersect each other and are always at a constant distance perpendicular to each other. Parallel lines can be two or more lines.

### Define perpendicular lines?

Perpendicular lines- Perpendicular lines are those lines which intersect each other in a plane at right angles then the lines are said to be perpendicular to each other.

### What is a line segment?

When a line cannot be extended any further because of its two endpoints then the line is known as a line segment. A line segment has 2 endpoints.

### What is the radius of a circle?

A radius of a circle is the line from any point on the circumference of the circle to the center of the circle.

### Define Square?

A quadrilateral in which all the four sides are said to be equal and each of its internal angles is right angles is called square.