Difference between Genomics and Proteomics

Genomics

Genomics is the study of a complete set of genes or genetic material in an organism. It involves DNA sequencing, mapping of genes, evolution, gene edition, function and expression. It takes into account all the genes present in an organism, their inter-relation and their role in an organism. It takes the help of high throughput sequencing techniques and bioinformatics to analyse the whole genome. Genomics also include the study of interactions between genes like epistasis, pleiotropy, etc.

Proteomics

is the study of the total set of proteins. It helps in understanding the characteristics and functions of a cell type. The proteome is a total set of proteins that are expressed in an organism from its genome. It varies with time, requirement, internal and external environment, stress, etc. that a cell or an organism faces. Proteomics takes the help of genomic studies as proteins are the functional product of the genome. Proteomics involves protein purification, identification, structural analysis, interaction and functions. Technologies such as immunoassay, mass spectrometry are used in this. It provides an understanding of a biological system.

Difference between Genomics and Proteomics

The table below shows the main differences between Genomics and Proteomics.

Genomics

Proteomics

Genomics is the study of the entire set of genes or the genome of a cell or organisms

Proteomics is the study of proteins that are expressed by functional genes

It is the study of genome structure and expression

It is the study of proteins structure, expression and activity

Every cell contains the same set of genes. Genome is fixed in an organism

Proteome varies in different types of cells according to function, internal and external factors

Mere presence of a gene does not tell about its functionality. Gene expression is regulated at the transcription and translation level

Study of proteins is more conclusive as it is the functional product of a gene, and tells about the actual condition of a cell or an organism

It involves sequencing, mapping and expression analysis of a genome

It involves the study of 3D structure, function and interaction of proteins

Technologies used are DNA sequencing and bioinformatics

Technologies involved are immunoassay, mass spectrometry, etc.

The human genome project is a part of genomics

It takes the help of genomic projects

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the types of proteomics?

The three main types of proteomics are structural proteomics, functional proteomics and expression proteomics.

  • Structural Proteomics – It involves identifying and analysing the 3D structure of proteins and their complexities. X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy are used for this purpose.
  • Functional Proteomics – It involves the study of functions of proteins, their interactions, molecular mechanisms and the biological roles they play.
  • Expression Proteomics – It involves the study of the qualitative and quantitative expression of proteins in different environments. E.g. in diseased and normal individuals.

What is genomics used for?

Genomics is useful in diagnosing, predicting and treating diseases. Genomics is widely used in research, medicine, biotechnology, evolutionary studies, bioengineering, etc.

What is the difference between genetics and genomics?

Genetics is the study of individual genes and their inheritance, whereas genomics is the characterisation and analysis of the complete genome and its expression.

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