Flashcards For NEET Biology - Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Principles of Inheritance and Variation. These flashcards on Principles of Inheritance and Variation are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Principles of Inheritance and Variation, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

Download PDF of NEET Biology Flashcards for Principles of Inheritance and Variation

Name of the NEET sub-section Topic Flashcards helpful for
Biology Principles of Inheritance and Variation NEET exams

 

class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 01
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 02
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 03
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 04
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 05
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 06
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 07
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 08
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 09
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 10
class 12 principles of inheritance and variation 11

 

Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Seven contrasting traits in Mendel’s experiments -Seed shape, round and wrinkled

-Seed colour, yellow and green

-Flower colour, violet and white

-Pod shape, full and constricted

-Pod colour, green and yellow

-Flower position, axial and terminal

-Stem height, tall and dwarf

Genes Unit of inheritance

Responsible for expression of any trait

Alleles Variants of a gene present at the same locus on homologous chromosomes
Genotype Genetic constituent of organisms

Homozygote- identical pair of alleles

Heterozygote- dissimilar pair of alleles

Phenotype External and morphological appearance of a trait

Dominant trait- which is expressed in both homozygotes and heterozygotes

Recessive trait- which is only expressed in homozygotes

Monohybrid cross Inheritance study of only one character

Phenotypic ratio- 3:1

Genotypic ratio- 1:2:1

Dihybrid cross Inheritance study of two characters

Phenotypic ratio- 9:3:3:1

Genotypic ratio- 1:2:1:2:4:2:1:2:1

Back cross Cross of filial1 or F1 progeny with any parent
Test cross Cross of F1 progeny with the recessive homozygous parent

Used to determine genotype of F1 individual showing dominant phenotype

Reciprocal cross The male and female parents are changed
Incomplete dominance Dominant trait does not completely mask the recessive trait

F1 phenotype does not resemble any parent, instead, shows a blending of alleles

E.g. Antirrhinum (snapdragon), Mirabilis jalapa

Multiple alleles More than one alleles for a gene or character

E.g. ABO blood group, gene I exist in three forms

Chromosomal theory of inheritance Sutton and Boveri
Linkage T H Morgan coined the term

Association of genes in close proximity on the same chromosomes

Closely linked genes show low recombination and mostly inherited together

Polygenic inheritance Inheritance of a trait controlled by many genes

E.g. skin colour, height in humans

Pleiotropic genes A gene, which controls more than one characters

E.g. A defective gene causing phenylketonuria

Epistasis When a gene suppresses the effect of non-allelic gene

E.g. hair colour and baldness, wheat kernel colour, coat colour in horses

Male heterogamety Different types of gametes produced by males

E.g. XO in insects, XY in humans and Drosophila

Female heterogamety Different types of gametes produced by females

E.g. ZW in birds

Parthenogenesis Development of an individual from an unfertilised egg

E.g. male drones of honey bees contain haploid chromosomes

Mutation Change in the DNA sequence due to deletion, insertion or substitution

Point mutation- change in single base pair in DNA, e.g. sickle cell anaemia

Frame-shift mutation- due to deletion or insertion of base pairs

Colour blindness X-linked recessive
Haemophilia X-linked recessive
Sickle-cell anaemia Autosomal recessive

Glu (GAG) changes to Val (GUG) at the 6th position codon of β-globin chain of haemoglobin

Phenylketonuria Autosomal recessive

Caused by mutation in the gene coding for enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which converts phenylalanine to tyrosine

Thalassemia Autosomal recessive

Defective genes for 𝛼 or β globin chains of haemoglobin

𝛼-Thalassemia- HBA1 and HBA2 gene on chromosome 16

β-Thalassemia- gene HBB on chromosome 11

Aneuploidy Loss or gain of an extra chromosome

Caused when chromatids fail to segregate during cell division

E.g. Down’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome, etc.

Polyploidy Gain of a full set of chromosomes

Caused when cytokinesis does not follow karyokinesis

Common in plants

Down’s syndrome Trisomy of 21st chromosome
Klinefelter’s syndrome Additional X chromosome

XXY

Turner’s syndrome Monosomy, one of the sex chromosomes is missing

XO

True breeding plant Stable trait inheritance for several generations on self-fertilisation

Homozygous for traits

Produces similar offsprings on self-fertilisation

Get access to the full set of flashcards for NEET Biology, only at BYJU’S.

Also Check:

NEET Flashcards: Cell The Unit Of Life

NEET Flashcards: Biomolecules

NEET Flashcards: Cell Cycle And Cell Division

NEET Flashcards: Molecular Basis Of Inheritance

NEET Flashcards: Evolution

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*