Floral Formula Of Liliaceae

Liliaceae is a family of angiosperms. It is a family of monocotyledonous plants. It is also known as the ‘lily family’. It is widely distributed all over the world. It includes ornamental plants such as lilies, tulips, medicinal plants, e.g. Aloe vera, Colchicum, etc. Vegetables like onion, garlic, asparagus also belong to the Liliaceae family.

Floral formula and floral diagram of Liliaceae family

Floral Formula

A floral formula is a symbolic representation of different floral parts, their numbers, arrangement pattern and how they are related. The floral formula of Allium cepa (onion) of the Liliaceae family is as follows:

Floral formula of Allium cepa (onion) of Liliaceae family

Here the symbols represent:

Br

Bracteate

Actinomorphic (radial symmetry)

Bisexual

P(3+3)

Perianth – 6 tepals in two whorls, gamophyllous (united)

A3+3

Androecium – 6 stamens, polyandrous (free), epiphyllous (attached to tepals)

G(3)

Gynoecium – tricarpellary, syncarpous (united), superior ovary

Systematic Position Of Liliaceae

Kingdom: Plantae

Subkingdom: Tracheobionta

Super Division: Spermatophyta

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Liliopsida

Subclass: Liliidae

Order: Liliales

Family: Liliaceae

Features Of Liliaceae Family

Some Common Plants

Liliaceae is a big family of flowering plants. Some common examples are:

Common name

Scientific name

Onion

Allium cepa

Garlic

Allium sativum

Asparagus

Asparagus officinalis

Aloe vera

Aloe vera

Lily

Lilium sp.

Tulip

Tulipa sp.

Dragon plant

Dracaena marginata

Butcher’s broom

Ruscus aculeatus

Autumn Crocus

Colchicum autumnale

Description Of The Family

Habit: Liliaceae family contains perennial herbaceous plants. They are monocot with great morphological diversity. Some are climbers and some are also trees.

Root: Typically they possess fibrous root system.

Stem: Mostly herbaceous stem, which is aerial or underground. Underground stems are often present as bulbs, corms or rhizomes. Some of the aerial stems bear phylloclades, which are modified leaf-like branches.

Leaf: Leaves are mostly alternate, basal with parallel venation. Leaves are exstipulate, petiolate or sessile with variable shapes such as scaly, succulent or modified to tendrils.

Inflorescence: Variable inflorescence, e.g. solitary, cymose umbel, etc.

Flower: Mostly bracteate, actinomorphic and hermaphrodite. The flower is generally trimerous and hypogynous.

Perianth: Tepals 6, biseriate (2 whorled), mostly united and have valvate aestivation.

Androecium: Stamens 6, polyandrous and epiphyllous or epitepalous. Present in two whorls.

Gynoecium: Tricarpellary, syncarpous with the superior and trilocular ovary. Each locule contains many ovules. Axile placentation. It contains one style and a three lobed stigma.

Fruit: Mostly capsule, rarely a berry.

Seeds: Endospermic and with one cotyledon. The endosperm is fleshy or horny and contains aleuron or oil.

Pollination: Members of this family mainly exhibit entomophilous pollination, i.e. pollinated by insects.

Economic Importance

  • Many plants are used as vegetables, e.g. onion, garlic, asparagus, etc.
  • Many plants are of medicinal importance, e.g. Aloe vera, Smilax, etc. Colchicine is obtained from Colchicum.
  • Many ornamental plants also belong to this family. E.g. Lilies, tulips, etc.
  • Some of the plants yield fibres, e.g Yucca.

To sum up, in general, the flowers of the Liliaceae family are bracteate, actinomorphic, bisexual, trimerous and hypogynous.

The perianth is with six tepals, gamophyllous and biseriate.

Androecium contains six polyandrous stamens, which are epiphyllous and present in two whorls.

The gynoecium is tricarpellary and syncarpous with superior ovary having axile placentation.

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