Clausius Statement Questions

What is Clausius Statement?

From the second law of thermodynamics, Clausius statement states that:

“It is impossible to produce a device that operates on a cycle and has no other consequences than to transfer the heat from a cooler body to a hotter body.”

That is, heat transfer can occur only in the direction of temperature decrease spontaneously. For example, it’s impossible to design a refrigerator that functions without any work input.

Who was Rudolf Clausius?

Rudolf Julius Clausius is one of the chief founders of thermodynamics science, and he was a well-known German physicist. The theory of heat is one of the few significant concepts introduced by Clausius, and this theory is basically a restatement of the Carnot cycle. He also published papers on “The Moving Force of Heat”, entropy and virial theorem.

The Second Law of Thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that heat does not cause only one effect with respect to work. To determine the work, the heat is not limited; it might have other effects too. Another term used for the second law of thermodynamics is the Kelvin statement.

The efficient heat engine has not yet been made, in spite of all the expensive and latest technological functions available currently.

The second law of thermodynamics confines the first law of thermodynamics, in fact, forbids it since the first law talks about the probability of building a perfect engine.

What is the statement of Kelvin Planck?

Kelvin Planck Statement articulates that “It is not possible to create a device which functions on a cycle and produces no other consequence, it should just be responsible for the transference of heat from a single body in order to produce work.” This is known as the special case of the second law of thermodynamics, which basically means that it is not possible to construct an engine whose only purpose is to alter the heat from a high-temperature reservoir into an equivalent amount of work.

Important Questions on Clausius statement

1) What is Clausius Statement?

Clausius’ statement says that it is impossible to produce a device that operates on a cycle and has no other consequences than to transfer the heat from a cooler body to a hotter body.

2) What is a Carnot Engine?

The Carnot engine proposed by Leonard Carnot is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle. It works on the principle of the Carnot cycle, which provides an assessment of the maximum possible efficiency that a heat engine converts heat into output work, conversely, working between two reservoirs (hot and cold).

3) What are the four laws of thermodynamics?

There are four main laws of thermodynamics which are as follows-

  • First law of Thermodynamics
  • Second law of Thermodynamics
  • Third law of Thermodynamics
  • Zeroth law of Thermodynamics

4) State and explain the Second Law of thermodynamics.

The second law of thermodynamics states that heat does not cause only one effect with respect to work. To determine the work, the heat is not limited; it might have other effects too. Another term used for the second law of thermodynamics is the Kelvin statement.

And the biggest problems known to mankind can be manifested using the kelvin statement. The efficient heat engine has not yet been made, in spite of all the expensive and latest technological functions available currently.

The second law of thermodynamics confines the first law of thermodynamics, in fact, forbids it since the first law talks about the probability of building a perfect engine.

5) Write some applications of the Second Law of thermodynamics.

Following are some applications of the Second Law of thermodynamics:

  • The flow of heat is always from a hotter body to a cooler body.
  • The second law of thermodynamics is applicable on the machines that are completely based on Reversed Carnot cycle, like heat pumps and refrigerators. Also, to all the types of heat engine cycles, such as Diesel and Otto, the second law of thermodynamics is applicable.
  • The working of refrigerators and air conditioners are based on the fact that the supply of external work by means of a compressor makes the food and surrounding area colder. This means that the second law of thermodynamics is applicable to remove the heat using these machines as the cooling doesn’t happen automatically.

6) It is possible for the entropy of one system to decrease if a process is carried out between 2 systems. True or False?

a) True

b) False

Correct Option: (a)

Explanation: It is possible for the entropy of a system to decrease if the net entropy change has been positive. But to ensure net entropy increases, it is important that the entropy of the second system should increase adequately.

7) By using the internal energy of the table, an object lying on it can sail upwards on its own; according to the first law of thermodynamics, is it true or false?

a) True

b) False

Correct Option: (a)

Explanation: According to the first law, it is valid because, in the above-mentioned process, energy is conserved and only disrupts the second law. So, the given statement is true.

8) Efficiency of a heat engine cannot be 1, which among the following laws of thermodynamics agrees with this statement?

a) Second

b) Third

c) First

d) Zeroth

Correct Option: (a)

Explanation: The second law of thermodynamics basically excludes many processes that may be reliable with the law of energy conservation. It says that entropy change has to be positive in an irreversible process. This means that all the heat can’t be converted into work that is given to an engine. Hence, efficiency cannot be 1.

9) Which among the following statements is the Kelvin Planck statement?

a) Without external work, heat from a cold reservoir can’t be transferred to a hot reservoir

b) For a reversible cyclic process, efficiency can be 1

c) If the process is reversible, then the heat from a hot reservoir can be fully converted into work

d) The heat engine has an efficiency fewer than 1

Correct Option: (d)

Explanation: Kelvin Planck statement says that no process is possible whose only result is to complete conversion of that heat into work through the absorption of heat from a reservoir. So, this means that the heat engine will have an efficiency fewer than 1.

10) Which among the following is the statement of the second law of thermodynamics?

a) Entropy of a system can never decline

b) The second law talks about the probability to build a perfect engine

c) Energy is conserved in the second law of thermodynamics

d) Over time, the entropy of an isolated system can never decrease

Correct Option: (d)

Explanation: The second law states that, over time, the entropy of an isolated system can never decline. In a process, if there is a system whose entropy decreases, then at the same time, the entropy of another system will increase sufficiently to compensate for that decrease in that process.

Practice Questions

1) What is Clausius Statement?

2) What is the second law of thermodynamics?

3) Write some real-life applications of the second law of thermodynamics.

4) What is the Carnot cycle?

5) What is the difference between air conditioning and refrigeration?

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