Composition of Glass

Have you ever noticed “handle with care” written on a gift box or on a cardboard box? What does that mean? It means, it contains a delicate item which is breakable and mostly it carries glassware or objects made of glass.

Glass is the most delicate decorative material which is widely used in all sectors. Although it is delicate, there are some glasses which are durable too. They are used in making housewares, laboratory equipment, in buildings, optical lenses, prisms, and telecommunication for data transfer purposes too. In this article, let us know the composition of glass and its usage.

What Is Glass?

Glass is an inorganic solid and non-crystalline material that is transparent in appearance. Using archaeological evidence, we can trace the usage of glass in the stone age period too. Some of the weapons and tools were made of naturally occurring volcanic glass. There four types of glasses, they are:

  • Annealed Glass
  • Heat Strengthened Glass
  • Toughened Glass
  • Laminated Glass

Annealed glass: it is the simplest and basic form of glass. It is also known as float glass since it is formed from the annealing stage of the float process. Annealed Glass is the main product to manufacture various advanced glass types.

Heat Strengthened Glass: It is a semi-tough glass which is used to provide extra toughness to resist thermal stress or wind pressure. They are ideal for use in glass in doors, tub and shower enclosures in building construction.

Toughened Glass: It is also known as tempered glass and is tough in nature. When the glass breaks, it forms small granular chunks like square fragments which are hazardous and can cause injuries. It is commonly used in mobile screen guards and fire-resistant doors.

Laminated Glass: It is the most common type of glass which features two sheets of glass with a plastic interlayer separating them. It is widely used in the automotive industry for the manufacture of vehicles. Laminated glass does not break into small fragments. In the event of glass breakage, the glass remains struck in the plastic layer and cannot be broken easily.

Properties of Glass

Some of the important properties of glass are listed below:

  • It is a material made of natural products.
  • It is an inorganic solid material.
  • Glass can withstand high temperatures.
  • It is 100% recyclable.

Composition of Glass

Sand, the common form of silica, is easily available in nature. It is the main component of glass making along with the chief component silicon dioxide (SiO2). Some of the common types of glass along with its composition is given in the table below.

Glass Type


Soda Glass

It is produced by combining silica, calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate.

Flint Glass

It is produced by combining sodium, lead silicates, and potassium.

Lead crystal glass

It is manufactured by mixing silica with cerium oxide.

Xena Glass

It is created by combining zinc and barium borosilicate.

Crooks Glass

Cerium oxide, when mixed with silica crook glass is produced.

Crown Glass

It is produced by combining silica, Potassium Oxide, and Barium Oxide.

Potash Glass

It is manufactured by mixing silica, potassium carbonate, and calcium carbonate.

Pyrex Glass

It is created by combining barium silicate with sodium silicate.

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Frequently Asked Questions on Glass

1. Is glass opaque or transparent material?

Glass is a transparent material.

2. What is the composition of soda glass?

It is produced by combining silica, calcium carbonate and sodium carbonate.

3. Name the main types of glass.

  • Annealed Glass
  • Heat Strengthened Glass
  • Toughened Glass
  • Laminated Glass

4. Can the laminated glass be broken into small fragments?

No, the laminated glass cannot be broken into small fragments.

5. What is toughened glass known as?

Toughened Glass is also known as tempered glass.

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