# Digital Electronics Questions

Digital electronics is a branch of electronics that deals with the study of digital signals and devices that produce or use them. The field of electronics can be divided into two categories: digital and analogue. The analogue stands for any natural process that changes its characteristics over an interval of time. On the other hand, digital entities are entirely different.

In the digital world, fundamentally, there are only two conditions: OFF or ON. The basic difference between digital and analogue signals is that a digital signal has a discrete nature while an analogue signal has a continuous nature.

## Evolution of Digital Electronics

The binary number system is the fulcrum digital data transmission.

• Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz improved the binary system and showed that concepts of logic and arithmetic could be joined by applying the binary system.
• During the mid-19th century, George Boole laid the foundation of digital logic. Later, Charles Sanders Peirce showed how electric switching circuits could do logical functions.
• In 1907, Lee De Forest’s modified Fleming valve (could be used as an AND gate).
• In 1924, Walther Bothe created the first modern electronic AND gate.

The main advantage of digital circuits is that digital signals can be transferred without distortions caused by noise. In digital electronics, a well-defined representation of signals can be derived by utilising more binary digits to illustrate it. Even though this needs more digital electronic circuits to process the signals, each binary digit is managed by the same type of hardware, creating an easily adaptable system. In analogue systems, the extra resolution demands basic improvements in the linearity and noise nature of every signal step.

Information can be easily stored in digital format rather than in analogue forms. Digital systems have enough noise immunity, which allows them to store and retrieve data without significant distortions. In the case of analogue systems, noise infiltrates and deteriorates the information saved. Information can be easily retrieved with digital signals as long as the total noise is under a certain threshold. Even if there are excessive errors, we can easily recover data from large noises with the help of redundancy.

Watch this engaging video and understand why we shouldn’t touch electrical equipment with our wet hands.

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## Important Digital Electronics Questions with Answers

1) What are the two important types of components in digital electronics?

Digital electronics are made of different components that carry out distinct functions. Usually, such components are divided into two types: active components and passive components.

2) What is an active component?

An active component is an electronic component that possesses an analogue electronic filter that can produce a power gain or amplify a signal.

3) What are the examples of active components?

The most common examples of active components are transistors, diodes, batteries, etc.

4) What is a passive component?

A passive component is a component that only has the ability to receive energy. It can either absorb, store or dissipate energy in a magnetic field or an electric field. They do not require any type of power to function.

5) What are the examples of passive components?

The most common examples of passive components are resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc.

6) What is a diode?

Diodes are used for permitting the current flow in a particular direction. They are made using semiconductor substances. The main five types of diodes are Zener Diode, Small Signal Diode, Light Emitting Diode, Small Signal Diode and Schottky Diode.

7) What is a transistor?

A transistor is a semiconductor device that is used to amplify signals, and it also functions as a switching device. Transistors usually have three terminals.

8) What are the three main parts of a transistor?

Emitter, base and collector are the three main parts of a transistor.

9) What is a capacitor?

A capacitor is used to store electrical energy and charge. It is composed of two conducting plates. An insulator is placed between these plates.

10) What are the main parts of a capacitor?

A capacitor comprises two conductors divided by a non-conductive area. The non-conductive area can either be an electrical insulator or a vacuum known as a dielectric.

11) What is an inductor?

An inductor is a passive electronic component with two terminals. It is mainly made of a coiled insulated wire. An inductor is typically used to store energy in a magnetic field when current travels through it. The variation in the current is resisted with the use of an inductor.

12) What are logic gates?

Logic gates are the fundamental digital circuits. They are used to represent different digital signals using binary codes. NOT, AND, and OR gates are the basic logic gates. NAND, NOR, EX-OR and EX-NOR are derived from the basic gets mentioned above.

13) Explain NOT, AND and AND gates?

A NOT gate carries out logical negation on the given signal. If the input signal is false, then the output signal will be true.

An AND gate carries out logical conjunction. It gives a low output when low input is processed through the AND gate, and it gives a high output when high input is applied.

OR gate performs logical disjunction. When one of the two input signals are high, the output signal will also be high. If both input signals are not high, it results in a low output signal.

14) What is meant by a universal gate?

A universal gate is a logic gate that can perform any Boolean function without the need for any other type of gate.

15) What are the two universal gates?

NOR and NAND are the two universal gates.

16) What is a battery?

A battery is a device used for supplying energy to electric circuits. By using the electrochemical oxidation-reduction (redox) process, batteries convert chemical energy into electrical energy.

17) What is a switch?

A switch is an electronic device that connects or disconnects the conducting path in an electronic circuit. It diverts or interrupts electric current from one conducting path to another.

18) What is a resistor?

A resistor is an electronic component that performs electrical resistance in a circuit. Resistors are used to control current flow, divide voltages, adjust signal levels, terminate transmission lines, etc. Most of the resistors work on the principles of Ohm’s law.

19) What are the main advantages of digital systems over analogue systems?

The main advantages of digital systems over analogue systems are:

• The data transmission in digital systems occurs without signal degradation due to noise. Digital systems possess noise immunity, which enables efficient data processing. On the other hand, analogue systems are susceptible to wear and tear, which deteriorates the stored information.
• Most digital systems have computer interfaces that allow for much easier control of the signals and information. Updating the system software will enable us to resolve any bugs in the data or signal. Such features are not present in the analogue systems.

20) What are the main disadvantages of digital systems?

Even though digital systems are considered to be noise-resistant and storage efficient, they also have a few disadvantages.

• The energy consumption of digital systems is larger compared to analogue systems. This energy is used to process signals and calculations.
• Digital communication systems require larger bandwidth than analogue systems. Digital systems are expensive in terms of components and maintenance.
• Digital systems are vulnerable to errors if there is even slight misinterpretation in input data.

21) List a few practical uses of digital electronic components.

Digital circuits or Digital electronics are the most important parts of modern electronic devices. Here are some of the familiar devices that use digital circuits:

Computers

Digital Clocks

Solid State Drives

Smart Televisions

Digital Cameras

Digital Stop Watches

ATMs

Robots

Drones and Guided Missiles

Smartphones

Digital Thermometers

Auto Piloted Vehicles

22) What is the use of resistors in digital electronics?

Resistors are used to control the current flow in digital electronics.

23) What is the use of logic gates in digital circuits?

Logic gates are used to store and process data. A storage network can be made by joining multiple gates in a latch circuit.

24) What are the three fundamental Boolean operators?

Boolean operators are the basis of database logic and mathematical sets.

The three fundamental boolean operators are: OR, NOT and AND.

25) What is a binary number system?

The binary number system uses only digits 0 and 1 to represent numbers or data. As there are only two digits, this is known as the “base-2 number system”.

26) _____ are stated as the basic building blocks of the digital electronics system.

Explanation: Logic gates are stated as the basic building blocks of the digital electronics system.

27) What is digital electronics?

Digital electronics is a branch of electronics that deals with the study of digital signals and devices that produce or use them.

The field of electronics can be divided into two categories: digital and analogue. The analogue stands for any natural process that changes its own characteristics over an interval of time. On the other hand, digital entities are entirely different. In the digital world, fundamentally, there are only two conditions: OFF or ON.

The basic difference between digital and analogue signals is that a digital signal has a discrete nature while an analogue signal has a continuous nature.

28) Who showed that concepts of logic and arithmetic could be joined?

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz improved the binary system and showed that concepts of logic and arithmetic could be joined by applying the binary system.

29) Who designed the first modern electronic AND gate?

In 1924, Walther Bothe created the first modern electronic AND gate.

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## Practice Questions

1) What is the difference between AND and NAND gates?

2) What is the difference between analogue and digital signals?

3) Which is the first digital computer?

4) What is a boolean function?

5) Which type of signal is vulnerable to noise?

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