Difference Between Biome And Ecosystem

What is an Ecosystem?

An ecosystem is a system or a functional unit in the environment where biotic and abiotic components interact with each other. Abiotic components include water, soil, atmosphere, temperature etc.

Living entities have an internal hierarchy within an ecosystem which are the producers, the consumers and the decomposers. They interact with each other giving rise to the food chain within an ecosystem.

Linking within these food webs forms the basis for complex webs and contribute to the existence of an ecosystem.

All the essential material required for survival comes from the abiotic components of the ecosystem such as radiation, energy, water etc which are obtained as a result of various biological cycles.

Energy moves in a unidirectional path.

What is a Biome?

Biomes, on the other hand, is a zone on the earth, which is identified by a large scale climate and vegetation characteristics.

They are climatically controlled association of entities.

They are usually identified and named after the life form, for instance, grassland, coral reef, tropical rain forests etc.

Species in different parts of a biome may appear similar in behaviour and appearance due to the similarity in the patterns of natural selection.

Examples of biomes – Tundra, temperate evergreens, taiga etc.

Difference Between Biome And Ecosystem

Following are the difference between biome and ecosystem:



It is a large land area with a distinct climate and plants and animal species.

It refers to the interaction of biotic and abiotic components.

The geographical area is large.

The geographical area is small.

It depends upon the climatic factors such as rainfall, ice, snow, temperature, etc.

It does not depend upon the climatic factors.

It comprises of multiple ecosystems.

It is a part of biome comprising of biotic and abiotic factors.

It abounds in plant and animal species.

It is smaller in size and has fewer species of plants and animals.

All the organisms in a biome interact with each other.

All the organisms in an ecosystem do not interact with each other.

It is affected by the latitude.

It is not influenced by the latitude.

Desert, grasslands, tundra, and tropical rainforests are some examples of biomes.

An ecosystem includes ponds, coral reefs, etc.

Key Points

  • An ecosystem is smaller when compared to a biome as a biome can be distributed throughout the earth.
  • Unlike an ecosystem, a biome is strongly influenced by its physical factors such as climatic conditions such as snow, temperature, rainfall etc.

  • An ecosystem is not influenced by the latitude whereas a biome is influenced.

  • In an ecosystem, all animals interact in trophic interactions of food webs and chains whereas, in a biome, animals do not necessarily interact.

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