Biotic And Abiotic

Biotic and abiotic are the two essential factors responsible for shaping up the ecosystem. The biotic factors refer to the living components of an ecosystem, and the abiotic factors refer to the non-living, chemical and physical components of the ecosystem. Therefore, both the abiotic and biotic factors affect survival and reproduction process.

Furthermore, both these components are reliant on each other. Suppose if one of the factors is removed or altered, its repercussions will be faced by the entire ecosystem. Without a doubt, abiotic factors directly affect the survival of organisms. Read on to explore what role do abiotic and biotic resources play in the ecosystem.

Also read:  Ecosystem

Biotic and Abiotic

Biotic Meaning

The term “biotic” is formed by the combination of two terms, “bio” meaning life and “ic” meaning like. Thus the term means life-like and is related to all the living entities present in an ecosystem.

Biotic Factors

Biotic factors or relate to all the living things in the ecosystem. Their presence and their biological by-products affect the composition of an ecosystem. Biotic factors include all living organisms from animals and humans, to plants, fungi, and bacteria. The interactions between various biotic factors are necessary for the survival and reproduction of each species.

Examples of Biotic Factors

The examples of biotic resources relate to all the living components of an ecosystem. These include producers, consumers, decomposers and detritivores.

Abiotic Meaning

The term abiotic refers to the non-living entities in the ecosystem. Sunlight, water, land, all constitute the abiotic factors.

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors refer to all the non-living chemical and physical factors present in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Sunlight, air, precipitation, minerals, and soil are some examples of abiotic factors. These factors have a significant impact on the survival and reproduction of species in an ecosystem.

For instance, without an adequate amount of sunlight, autotrophic organisms may not be able to survive. When these organisms eventually die, it will create a shortage of food for primary consumers. This effect cascades up the food chain, affecting every organism. Consequently, it leads to an imbalance in the ecosystem.

Examples of Abiotic Factors

Abiotic examples typically depend on the type of ecosystem. For instance, abiotic components in a terrestrial ecosystem include air, weather, water, temperature, humidity, altitude, the pH level of soil, type of soil and more. Abiotic examples in an aquatic ecosystem include water salinity, oxygen levels, pH levels, water flow rate, water depth and temperature.

Now, let’s have a look at the significant differences between the abiotic and biotic factors.

Difference between Biotic and Abiotic Components

Difference Between Biotic Factors and Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors Abiotic Factors


Biotic factors include the living components of an ecosystem Abiotic factors are the non-living, physical and chemical factors that influence an ecosystem


Examples of biotic factors include all flora and fauna Examples of abiotic factors include precipitation, altitude, temperature, type of soil, minerals, geographic location, humidity, wind, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, water depth etc.


Biotic factors depend on abiotic factors for survival and reproduction Abiotic factors are completely independent of biotic factors


Biotic components originate from the biosphere Abiotic components originate from the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere

Discover more about Abiotic and biotic resources or factors and other related topics only @ BYJU’S Biology

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What are biotic factors?

Biotic factors are the living components of an ecosystem. More specifically, it includes all flora and fauna.

2. State a few examples of biotic factors.

  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria

3. What are abiotic factors?

Abiotic factors are the non-living components of an ecosystem. It typically comprises physical and chemical components.

4. State a few examples of abiotic factors.

Abiotic factors comprise of the following:

  • Climate
  • Humidity
  • Precipitation
  • Wind
  • Altitude
  • Type of soil
  • Light penetration
  • Water depth
  • Oxygen content
  • Turbidity

5. Elaborate an example of interaction between biotic and abiotic components.

Biotic resources include every lifeform in an ecosystem. These lifeforms rely on abiotic factors as they directly affect their growth, survival and reproduction. For instance, turbidity is an abiotic factor that majorly affects the aquatic ecosystem. High levels of turbidity inhibit the growth of aquatic submerged plants. This consequently affects other species which depend upon these plants for food or shelter.

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