Biotic And Abiotic

Table of Contents

Biotic and abiotic are the two essential factors responsible for shaping the ecosystem. The biotic factors refer to all the living beings present in an ecosystem, and the abiotic factors refer to all the non-living components like physical conditions (temperature, pH, humidity, salinity, sunlight, etc.) and chemical agents (different gases and mineral nutrients present in the air, water, soil, etc.) in an ecosystem. Therefore, both the abiotic and biotic resources affect the survival and reproduction process.

Furthermore, both these components are reliant on each other. Suppose if one of the factors is removed or altered, its repercussions will be faced by the entire ecosystem. Without a doubt, abiotic factors directly affect the survival of organisms. Read on to explore what role do abiotic and biotic resources play in the ecosystem.

Also read:  Ecosystem

Biotic and Abiotic

Biotic Meaning

The term “biotic” is formed by the combination of two terms, “bio” meaning life and “ic” meaning like. Thus, the term means life-like and is related to all the living entities present in an ecosystem.

Biotic Factors

Biotic factors relate to all the living things in the ecosystem. Their presence and their biological by-products affect the composition of an ecosystem. Biotic factors refer to all living organisms from animals and humans, to plants, fungi, and bacteria. The interactions between various biotic factors are necessary for the reproduction of each species and to fulfil essential requirements like food, etc.

Examples of Biotic Factors

Examples of biotic resources include all the living components present in an ecosystem. These include producers, consumers, decomposers and detritivores.

Abiotic Meaning

The term abiotic refers to all the non-living factors present in an ecosystem. Sunlight, water and land, all constitute the abiotic factors.

Abiotic Factors

Abiotic factors refer to all the non-living, i.e. chemical and physical factors present in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Sunlight, air, precipitation, minerals, and soil are some examples of abiotic factors. These factors have a significant impact on the survival and reproduction of species in an ecosystem.

For instance, without an adequate amount of sunlight, autotrophic organisms may not be able to survive. When these organisms eventually die, it will create a shortage of food for primary consumers. This effect cascades up the food chain, affecting every organism. Consequently, it leads to an imbalance in the ecosystem.

Examples of Abiotic Factors

Abiotic examples typically depend on the type of ecosystem. For instance, abiotic components in a terrestrial ecosystem include air, weather, water, temperature, humidity, altitude, the pH level of soil, type of soil and more. Abiotic examples in an aquatic ecosystem include water salinity, oxygen levels, pH levels, water flow rate, water depth and temperature.

Now, let’s have a look at the significant difference between the abiotic and biotic factors.

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Difference between Biotic and Abiotic Factors

Following are the important difference between abiotic and biotic factors:

Difference Between Biotic Resources and Abiotic Resources

Biotic Resources Abiotic Resources


Biotic factors include all the living components present in an ecosystem Abiotic factors refer to all the non-living, i.e. physical conditions and chemical factors that influence an ecosystem


Examples of biotic resources include all flora and fauna Examples of abiotic factors include sunlight, water, air, humidity, pH, temperature, salinity,  precipitation, altitude, type of soil, minerals, wind, dissolved oxygen, mineral nutrients present in the soil, air and water, etc.


Biotic factors depend on abiotic factors for survival and reproduction Abiotic factors are completely independent of biotic factors


Biotic components originate from the biosphere Abiotic components originate from the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere

Discover more about Abiotic and Biotic factors, their meaning, the difference between abiotic and biotic resources and other related topics only at BYJU’S Biology

Frequently Asked Questions


1. What are biotic factors?

Biotic factors are the living components present in an ecosystem. More specifically, it includes all flora and fauna.

2. State a few examples of biotic resources.

  • Plants
  • Animals
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria

3. What are abiotic factors?

Abiotic factors refer to all the non-living components present in an ecosystem. It typically comprises physical and chemical components.

4. State a few examples of abiotic factors.

Abiotic factors comprise the following:

  • Climate
  • Humidity
  • Precipitation
  • Wind
  • Altitude
  • Type of soil
  • Light penetration
  • Water depth
  • Oxygen content
  • Turbidity

5. Elaborate an example of the interaction between abiotic and biotic resources.

Biotic resources include every lifeform in an ecosystem. These lifeforms rely on abiotic factors as they directly affect their growth, survival and reproduction. For instance, turbidity is an abiotic factor that majorly affects the aquatic ecosystem. High levels of turbidity inhibit the growth of submerged plants. This consequently affects other species which depend upon these plants for food or shelter.

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  1. Biotic and abiotic definition

    • The term “Biotic” is related to all the living entities present in an ecosystem. The term abiotic refers to the non-living entities in the ecosystem. Sunlight, water, land, all constitute the abiotic factors.

  2. So basically biotic is everything in the ecosystem?

  3. Abiotic factors that affect marine habitat

  4. Thank you so much for the important information that you guys give me. It is really helpful.

  5. So Biotic factors are all living things ABiotic Factors are all none living things.

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  7. Very nice article

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  9. Thanks, it helps me with my arctic tundra project!!!

  10. Very useful information. Thank you

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  13. A dead living organism biotic or abiotic ?

    • Abiotic factors are the non-living parts of an environment such as sunlight, temperature, water, soil, wind, etc. Dead organisms are not abiotic. They were once living and so considered biotic.

  14. The environment consists of biotic and abiotic components that are interrelated in an ecosystem Explain

    • Both biotic and abiotic components constitute an ecosystem. Interaction of both these components are vital to maintain stability and linkage of ecosystem. They are interdependent on each other for survival.