Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic DNA

DNA or Deoxyribonucleic acid is the hereditary material present in all the organisms. It is located within the nucleus of a cell and contains the instructions an organism needs to develop.

It is a double-stranded, helical structure composed of 4 nucleotide bases, purines (Adenine and Guanine), and pyrimidines (Thymine and Cytosine). The DNA strands are antiparallel.

The structure and chemical composition of the DNA in both the eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are different. The prokaryotic cells have no nucleus, no organelles and a very small amount of DNA. On the other hand, the eukaryotic cells have nucleus and cell organelles, and the amount DNA present is large.

The below table gives a better understanding of the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic DNA.

Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic DNA

Prokaryotic DNA

Eukaryotic DNA

Occurs as a covalent closed circular form of DNA Occurs as a linear form of DNA with two ends
Found freely in the central portion of the cytoplasm Found within the nucleus
Do not form chromosomes Forms chromosomes in the nucleus
Do not interact with the  histone proteins Associated with the histone proteins
The quantity of the DNA is comparatively less The quantity of the DNA is more
DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell DNA replication occurs within the nucleus of the cell
Codes for 300 to 400 proteins Codes around 900-1000 of proteins
There is no formation of nucleosome There is a formation of nucleosome
Introns are absent in the coding region of DNA Introns are present in the coding region of DNA
Only a few numbers of the protein interact with the Prokaryotic DNA A large number of proteins interacts with the Eukaryotic DNA

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Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA,  and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is a prokaryotic DNA?

The genetic material of the prokaryotic DNA is in the form of circular DNA. The DNA is present in the nucleoid which is not surrounded by the nuclear membrane.

Does prokaryotic DNA have introns?

Prokaryotic DNA does not have introns. They have transcription couples with translation, therefore, there is no space for intron splicing since intron splicing stops the coupling.

How the structure of eukaryotic DNA different from prokaryotic DNA?

Prokaryotic DNA is a closed circular structure, whereas, eukaryotic DNA is linear.

Where are the prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA found?

The prokaryotic DNA is found in a coiled loop floating in the cytoplasm, whereas, the eukaryotic DNA is found inside the nucleus.

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