Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic DNA

What is DNA?

DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid is the hereditary material present in both humans and all other organisms. It is located with the nucleus of a cell and contains the instructions an organism needs to develop. It is a double-stranded, helical structure composed of 4 nucleobases divided into purines (Adenine and Guanine), and pyrimidines (Thymine and Cytosine). The DNA strands are antiparallel.

DNA is the genetic material which is present both in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The structure and chemical composition of the DNA in both the cells are similar. The major differences are mainly based on the occurrence of DNA, the formation of chromosome and nucleosome, the shape of  DNA, replication quantity, presence or absence of introns, type of mRNA produced, number of protein codes formed, etc.

The below table gives a better understanding of the different characteristics of eukaryotic DNA, and prokaryotic DNA.

Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic DNA

Prokaryotic DNA

Eukaryotic DNA

Occurs as a covalent closed circular form of DNA Occurs as a linear form of DNA with two ends
Found freely in the central portion of the cytoplasm Found within the nucleus
Do not form chromosomes Forms chromosomes in the nucleus
Do not interact with the  histone proteins Associate with the histone proteins
The quantity of the DNA is comparatively less The quantity of the DNA is more
DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell DNA replication occurs within the nucleus of the cell
Codes for 300 to 400 proteins Codes around 900-1000 of proteins
There is no formation of Nucleosome There is a formation of Nucleosome
Introns are absent in the coding region of DNA Introns are present in the coding region of DNA
Only a few numbers of the protein interact with the Prokaryotic DNA A large number of proteins interacts with the Eukaryotic DNA

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  3. Difference Between Vaccination And Immunization
  4. Difference Between Photosynthesis And Respiration
  5. Difference Between Unicellular And Multicellular Organisms

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about the DNA,  and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology.

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