What is DNA?
DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid is the hereditary material present in both humans and all other organisms. It is located with the nucleus of a cell and contains the instructions an organism needs to develop. It is a double-stranded, helical structure composed of 4 nucleobases divided into purines (Adenine and Guanine), and pyrimidines (Thymine and Cytosine). The DNA strands are antiparallel.
DNA is the genetic material which is present both in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The structure and chemical composition of the DNA in both the cells are similar. The major differences are mainly based on the occurrence of DNA, the formation of chromosome and nucleosome, the shape of DNA, replication quantity, presence or absence of introns, type of mRNA produced, number of protein codes formed, etc.
The below table gives a better understanding of the different characteristics of eukaryotic DNA, and prokaryotic DNA.
Difference Between Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic DNA
|Occurs as a covalent closed circular form of DNA||Occurs as a linear form of DNA with two ends|
|Found freely in the central portion of the cytoplasm||Found within the nucleus|
|Do not form chromosomes||Forms chromosomes in the nucleus|
|Do not interact with the histone proteins||Associate with the histone proteins|
|The quantity of the DNA is comparatively less||The quantity of the DNA is more|
|DNA replication occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell||DNA replication occurs within the nucleus of the cell|
|Codes for 300 to 400 proteins||Codes around 900-1000 of proteins|
|There is no formation of Nucleosome||There is a formation of Nucleosome|
|Introns are absent in the coding region of DNA||Introns are present in the coding region of DNA|
|Only a few numbers of the protein interact with the Prokaryotic DNA||A large number of proteins interacts with the Eukaryotic DNA|
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