Eye Diseases

Human eye

Like several parts of the body, the eye is also susceptible to infections or diseases. These ones could often be serious and must be dealt with care, and must be brought to the attention of a professional therapist. Eye diseases often do not show early symptoms and sometimes even the pain does not exist because not many see any change in their vision until the disease has reached its final stage.

There are different types of eye diseases that exist, all of these being common eye diseases. The following is a list of human eye disease:

  • Age-Related Macular Degeneration

It is also known as an irregularity that affects the center of the retina which is called the Macula. The Macula is responsible for everyday acute vision.There are two types of Dry and Wet Macular degeneration

Causes: Age, Smoking, Obesity, High blood pressure, Exposure to sunlight.

Symptoms: Blurred vision, A dark or empty area in the central area of vision, Distortion of straight lines.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Treatments: People suffering from Dry AMD continue with the aid of low vision optical devices. But Wet AMD is treated with injected medications or laser surgery by sealing off the leaking blood vessels.

  • Bulging Eyes

Proptosis as it is also known as occurs due to the swelling of muscle fats and tissue behind the eye causing both eyes to protrude from the eye sockets leaving the cornea exposed to air, making it difficult to keep the eyes moist and lubricated.

Causes: It has been linked to Glaucoma, Hyperthyroidism, and Leukemia the most common being Graves disease a condition where thyroid glands mistakenly sense harmful cells and release antibodies which fuse to eye muscles causing inflammation.

Symptoms: Common symptoms include Appearance of protruding eyes, Excessive dryness in eyes, Visible whiteness between the top of iris and the eyelid, Eye pain, Eye redness.

Bulging Eyes

Bulging Eyes

Treatments: Lack of lubrication is the main problem hence artificial tears and eye drops are used for moisture and lubrication.

  • Glaucoma

It is a situation which is caused by the damage to the eye’s optic nerve which gets severer over time. It is often associated with an increase in the pressure inside the eye. Glaucoma tends to be inherited and turns up late in life. There are four different types of Glaucoma which include Chronic open-angle glaucoma, Acute closed-angle glaucoma, Secondary glaucoma, Normal tension glaucoma.

Causes:  All four types of glaucoma are formed by different causes :

  1. Chronic open-angle glaucoma it results from a pressure build-up in the eye and causes severe vision loss without any symptoms.
  2. Acute closed glaucoma appears all of sudden which is very painful and is extremely serious.
  3. Secondary glaucoma arrives as a result of something else like medical conditions and injuries, irregularities.
  4. Normal tension glaucoma is a unique condition of the eye in which is caused by the damage to an optic nerve. This may result in the loss of vision, caused by the intraocular pressure in the eye.

Symptoms: Blurred vision, severe eye pain, headache, rainbow halos, nausea, and vomiting.



Treatments: Glaucoma could be treated with prescription eye drops which reduces eye pressure by slowing the production of fluids within the eye. Doctors also recommend highly focused laser beams to create an alternate hole in the iris. Surgery could treat glaucoma but could not reverse the existing damage.

  • Lazy Eye

 This is a condition where there is a lack of vision in one eye because the eye and the brain stop working together, the brain ignores the image from the amblyopic eye this only affects one eye resulting in the amblyopic eye pointing away from the other thereby appearing “Lazy”.Lazy Eye

Causes: There are various causes behind this condition like Strabismus (Crossed eyes)  and cataracts, ptosis and refractive problems.

Symptoms: Symptoms include eyes that point in different directions, significant favoring of one eye, poor depth perception, poor vision in one eye.

Treatments: Improved sight in a lazy eye could be accomplished however in certain cases an untreated eye might become dysfunctional, Best possible methods are by Patching or covering the strong eye: This method forces the weaker eye to work harder hence strengthening its ability to move and focus. Contact lenses and eyeglasses in some cases surgery to realign the muscles in the eye.

For more detailed information about the human eye and its disease, visit Byju’s

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