The human nervous system is fundamental and regarded as the most complex and enigmatic system in the body. It is the body’s communication system as it functions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body. It is one of the essential systems of the human body. Without the nervous system, no other systems can function accurately. The nervous system is mainly derived from its nerves, which are cylindrical bundles of fibers.
Based on their location, the nervous system is classified into:
- The Central nervous system (CNS)
The brain and the spinal cord together form the central nervous system.
- The Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises a group of ganglia and the bundles of nerves.
Altogether, there are 43 pairs of nerves in the peripheral nervous system, out of which 12 pairs of nerves are directly connected with the brain, and rest 31 pairs of nerves are connected to the spinal cord.
Also Read: Human Body – Anatomy
The nervous system is composed of the body’s nerve cells. These nerve cells receive and send information through the body’s senses organs, such as –
- Eye- Vision or sight.
- Ear – Sound.
- Nose- To smell.
- Tongue – To taste.
- Skin – To feel the touch.
Also Read- Senses organs.
Let us learn more in detail about the nervous system from the interesting facts given below.
Interesting Facts about the Human Nervous System
Fact – No – 1
In our central nervous system, there are more than millions of nerve cells, 100 billion neurons in the human brain and about 13,500,000 neurons in the spinal cord.
Fact – No – 2
The longest and widest single nerve in the human body is the sciatic nerve. It begins or originates from the spine in the lower back and runs through the buttock and down towards the lower limb till the toe. The sciatic nerve functions by delivering sensation to the skin of the sole, lower leg and the upper surface of the foot.
Fact – No – 3
Vitamin-B, Sodium, proteins, and other mineral ions, including potassium, magnesium, and calcium ions, are equally essential nutrients required for maintaining the healthy and proper functioning of our nervous system.
Fact – No – 4
Nerve damage is usually irreversible and can result in loss of function of any nerves in the body. This is because the nerve cells do not undergo the process of cell division, and therefore they cannot grow or repair themselves.
Fact – No – 5
An optic nerve, which is also known as the cranial nerve, is the fundamental part of the central nervous system and the most significant sensory nerve of the human eye. The structure of the eye mainly comprises millions to billions of optic nerve fibers and are involved in transmitting the visual information from the eye to the brain.
Fact – No – 6
The nervous system is the primary control system of our body as it is involved in every function, from breathing, generating and receiving responses, in controlling the muscles and sensing heat, cold and a lot more.
Fact – No – 7
Damage to the nervous system may result in the functioning of other systems. The nervous system is essential to the human body, as it provides the ability to interact with the world.
Fact – No – 8
The fastest signal transmission in the human body occurs by alpha motor neurons. It is the largest, multipolar lower motor neurons of the brainstem and spinal cord. The signal transmission occurs at 260 to 268 miles per hour.
Fact – No – 9
The slowest signal transmission in the human body occurs within the skin. It is the largest organ of the body and sense organs, which transmit signals at 1 mile per hour.
Fact – No – 10
The human nervous system starts to shrink as we grow older. The human brain also shrinks with the age of an individual, which shrinks about 1 to 2 grams every year and is mainly caused due to the loss of neurons.
Also Read: Interesting Facts about the Brain
This article concludes the introduction to the human nervous system and its amazing facts. To know more about the human nervous system, its facts, importance, disorders, other related topics and important questions, keep visiting our website at BYJU’S Biology.