Infrastructure is the support system of industrial and agricultural production, and foreign and domestic businesses. It is the basic organisational and physical structure that is required to run a business smoothly. In an organization or for a country, a basic infrastructure includes communication and transportation, sewage, water, education system, health system, clean drinking water, and monetary system.

A country’s economic and social development is directly dependent on a country’s infrastructure. Many developed countries make a lot of progress because of the enormous growth of economic and social infrastructures. A good infrastructure makes the work process easier, resulting in a positive and high productivity. 

Quick link: Infrastructure in India during British Rule

Types of Infrastructures

Economic infrastructure: This infrastructure is directly linked with the economic development of a country or an organisation. This includes the basic amenities and services that directly influence and benefit the production process of economic distribution. A few examples of economic infrastructures are power, transportation, irrigation, communication, etc.

 Social infrastructure: This type of infrastructure has the basic services that improve individual productivity and achieve social objectives. Social infrastructure contributes indirectly to the country’s economic development. For instance, the education sector does not  contribute directly to the economic development of a country. However, it helps indirectly by providing high-quality education to the students, therefore producing doctors, scientists, engineers, and technologists. Few examples of social infrastructure are water supply, sanitation, health, housing, etc.

Infrastructure Development in India

Contribution of Infrastructure

Rural Infrastructure in India

State of Rural Infrastructure in India

Also, Explore:

Short Questions

Q.1 Define infrastructure and its types.


Definition Infrastructure refers to the core elements of economic and social change that serve as support systems to the production activities in the economy. These elements include the following:

1. Roads

2. Railways

3. Telecommunication facilities

4. Educational system including schools and colleges

5. Health system including hospitals

6. Sanitary system including clean drinking water facilities

7. Monetary system including banks, insurance, and other financial institutions


Types of Infrastructures
(1) Economic infrastructure         Economic infrastructure directly supports economic growth.

        It provides product support services such as energy, transport, communication, etc.

        It improves the productivity levels in productive sectors like agriculture and industry.

(2) Social infrastructure         Social infrastructure improves human productivity and efficiency through facilities for education, health, housing, etc.

        It directly supports social growth in the economy.


Q.2 Why is social infrastructure important for the economy?

Social infrastructure is important for the economy because it improves human productivity and efficiency by providing facilities for education, health, housing, etc.

Q.3 What is the importance of economic infrastructure?

Economic infrastructure is important because it improves the productivity levels in productive sectors such as agriculture and industry by providing support services like energy, transport, communication, etc.


Multiple-Choice Question
Q.1 What are the categories of infrastructure?
a. Social infrastructure

b. Economic infrastructure

c. Both (a) and (b)

d. None of the above 

Answer Key
1-c Fill in the blanks


_____________ refers to the core elements of economic and social change that serve as support systems to the production activities in the economy.


Infrastructure enhances the size of the market with the good means of __________.


Important Topics in Economics:

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