The Performance Grading Index (PGI), released by the Ministry of Education, is a framework to assess the position of school education in different states and union territories. It is an annual publication. This exercise was first started in the year 2019 for the reference year 2017-18. In June 2023, the Ministry released the Performance Grading Index (PGI) 2.0 for States/UTs for the year 2021-22.
This article is important for the IAS Exam preparation (UPSC Mains GS 2) and the article talks about the overview and latest findings of the latest Performance Grading Index.
Performance Grading Index 2021-22 [Latest Report]:- Download PDF Here
Additionally, aspirants can read more about related articles on the Indian Education system from the links below:
|Right to Education Act||National Education Policy (NEP 2020)|
|ASER Survey 2020||Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan|
|Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan||SEQI|
Facts about Performance Grading Index for UPSC
|Brief Facts about PGI – UPSC Prelims|
|Which state/UT topped the PGI 2021-22?||Chandigarh|
|How frequently the index is published?||Once a year|
|Who released this index?||Ministry of Education, Department of School Education and Literacy (DoSEL)|
|What is the maximum possible score against which states/UTs are evaluated?||1000|
Performance Grading Index 2021-22
The Index is highly significant since it will help state governments and policymakers to identify gaps in education at the district/state/UT level and address the issues. It aids performance improvement in a decentralised way. By having a grading system, state/UT governments can aim towards achieving higher grades incrementally. With quantified information at hand, they can address the relevant areas of concern and work towards fixing the gaps from the district level up. This, in the long run, will benefit the entire school education system in the country.
The Performance Grading Index is a comprehensive assessment tool for evaluating the performance of school education in states/UTs.
- The PGI 2.0 structure comprises of 1000 points across 73 indicators grouped into 2 categories viz., Outcomes, Governance Management (GM).
- These categories are further divided into 6 domains, viz., Learning Outcomes (LO), Access (A), Infrastructure & Facilities (IF), Equity (E), Governance Process (GP) & Teachers Education and Training (TE&T).
- It classified the States/UTs into ten grades:
- Daksh – highest achievable grade, for State/UT scoring more than 940 points out of a total of 1000 points.
- The lowest grade is Akanshi-3 which is for a score up to 460.
- The other grades in decreasing order of points achieved are Utkarsh, Ati Uttam, Uttam, Prachesta-1, Prachesta-2, Prachesta-3, Akanshi-1 and Akanshi-2.
- Chandigarh received a score of 659.0 (Grade: PRACHESTA-2) which is the highest in this edition.
- Punjab came second (647.4 (Grade: PRACHESTA-2)) followed by Delhi (636.2 (Grade: PRACHESTA-3)) and Kerala (609.7 (Grade: PRACHESTA-3)).
- Rajasthan received a score of 577.5 (Grade: AKANSHI-1)
- In this edition, none of the states or UTs was able to achieve the top three grades of Daksh, Utkarsh and Prachesta-1.
Findings of PGI 2019-20
- Punjab has scored 929, the highest for the year 2019-20. In the previous edition of PGI 2018-19, Punjab scored 769 and was placed under Grade II. In PGI 2019-20, Punjab has shown a 20% increase from the previous year in the overall score and secured a position under Level II or Grade ++ (score range of 901-950 out of 1000).
- The position of Gujarat went down this year to eighth from the second position.
- No state or UT was able to achieve Level I (score range of 951-1000 out of 1000) in PGI 2019-20.
- Two states, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh, have dropped to a much below position due to their low scores when compared to their last year’s edition.
- Five states and UTs (Punjab, Chandigarh, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands) were able to reach Level II or Grade I++ in PGI 2019-20 for the first time.
- In comparison to the previous edition 2018-19, 33 states and UTs have shown improvement in this edition with their total PGI score.
Source – PGI: STATE/UT 2019-20
Overview of PGI
It can be used as a tool to estimate/gauge the performance of various states and UTs in school education and aid the states to identify the scope for improvement in critical areas and try to maximize their score and reach the highest level/grade.
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Significance of PGI
The Constitution of India mandates free and compulsory education to all children between the ages of six to fourteen years (Article 21) and also envisages providing early childhood care and education until the age of six years (Article 45).
|Right to education
Initially, the Constitution of India provided for the free and compulsory education for children under Article 45 in Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP). Later, the 86th Constitutional Amendment Act of 2002 added a provision under Article 21A that makes elementary education a fundamental right for children aged from six to fourteen. This step has revolutionized the Indian education system as it has urged the state to facilitate access to schools.
Read about the concepts of DPSPs, Constitutional Amendments, and Fundamental Rights along with Article 21 A from the links mentioned below:
So far, the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act and other schemes and initiatives by the Department of School Education and Literacy (DoSEL) have increased the accessibility of education in India.
Following that, this index aims to catalyze the changes in the education system that can improve the quality of education.
How is PGI scored?
The assessment is done with the help of 70 parameters grouped under five domains which sum up to a total weighted score of 1000:
- Learning outcomes & Quality
- Infrastructure & Facilities
- Governance Processes
The PGI chart will help in monitoring the interrelated inputs and outcomes, by which the states will be able to bridge the gap in a particular area and act on a quicker course correction. It can be seen as a progressive and encouraging tool because the states are not ranked but graded, which motivates all the states to try harder and reach the highest level category while also retaining the positions of the other better performing states.
Under these five domains, there are many indicators, and the information related to those are collected from data available with the DoSEL from various sources such as Unified District Information System for Education (UDISE), National Achievement Survey (NAS) of NCERT, Mid-Day Meal website, Public Financial Management System (PFMS) and the details uploaded by the States and UTs on the ‘ShaGun’ portal.
Scope of improvement
Among the five domains in PGI scoring, some states have scored less than 50% of the total score in only one domain (Governance Processes).
Also, 24 states/UTs have scored less than 80% of the total score in this domain, which indicates that the states and the UTs must focus more on this domain. The lower score by many states in this domain indicates an insufficient number of teachers, principals, and administrative staff, need for regular supervision, inefficient training of the teachers, and non-availability of prompt finances.
Another domain that requires focus is Infrastructure & Facilities, where 20 states/UTs have scored less than 80% of the maximum score possible. Moreover, Bihar and Meghalaya have scored the lowest in this domain marking the inadequate facilities (school buildings, uniforms, availability of ICT facilities, availability of textbooks) in these two states. On contrary, Andaman & Nicobar Islands and Odisha have shown remarkable improvement in the score in this particular domain. Therefore, PGI can be appraised as a platform where states/UTs can constantly aspire to improve and set an example for the other state to take action in order to bridge the gap in specific domains.
The above information would be helpful for the UPSC exam and other government exams.
Performance Grading Index 2021-22 [Latest Report]:- Download PDF Here
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