Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan - A Brief Overview

Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan is an integrated scheme for school education extending support to States from pre-school to senior secondary level. The issues related to the development and welfare of human resource is an important part of the Social justice content in General Studies paper 2 of the UPSC Syllabus. This article provides details on the origin and objectives of this scheme, the other relevant Government schemes which were subsumed under this program, and important features of Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan.

Aspirants would find this topic very helpful while preparing for the IAS Exam.

Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan – Objectives

The Government of India launched this scheme under the Ministry of Human Resource Development. The Department of School Education and Literacy looks after its administration. 

  1. The scheme was launched with a view to improving the quality of school education.
  2. The Scheme represents a paradigm shift in the conceptual design of school education, by treating ‘school’ holistically as a continuum from pre-school, primary, upper primary, and secondary to the senior secondary levels.
  3. The scheme was drafted with the broader goal of improving school effectiveness measured in terms of equal opportunities for schooling, and also equitable learning outcomes. 

In June 2021, the Ministry of Education has launched the NIPUN Bharat Programme that intends to cover the learning needs of children between three and nine years. The programme is being run under the aegis of Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA).

Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan Genesis

The Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan was formed by subsuming the following three schemes to ensure an integrated and holistic school education:

  1. (RMSA) Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan 
  2. (SSA) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 
  3. (TE) Teacher Education 

The goal is to treat schooling as a smooth transition from pre-school, primary, upper primary, secondary and senior secondary level. It focuses on improving the quality of education at all levels by integrating the two T’s – Teachers and Technology.

Ministry of Human Resource Development is implementing the Scheme of Vocationalisation of School Education under the umbrella of Samagra Shiksha.

Under the scheme of Vocationalisation of School Education, a vocational subject is offered for Classes IX to XII along with general education to provide necessary employability and vocational skills for a variety of occupations.

The vision of Samagra Shiksha Scheme

  • The scheme mainly aims to support States in the implementation of the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. Right to Education Act (RTE) is a fundamental right under Article 21-A of the Constitution of India. Further details on the Right to Education Act are available on the linked page.
  • To ensure inclusive and equitable quality education from pre-school to the senior secondary stage in accordance with the Sustainable Development Goal for Education. Get detailed information on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) on the given link.
    • Sustainable Development Goal 4.1: Aims to ensure that all boys and girls complete free, equitable, and quality primary and secondary education leading to relevant and effective learning outcomes.
    • Sustainable Development Goal 4.5: Aims to eliminate gender disparities in education and ensure equal access to all levels of education.

Read more ⇒ New Education Policy 2020

Samagra Shiksha Abhiyan – Important Features

  1. Integrated Approach to Education 
    • Maintaining continuity in school education from Pre-School to Class 12.
    • Including the prior and post levels in School education:
      • Senior Secondary levels
      • Pre-School Levels
  2. Administrative Reformation
    • The scheme will provide flexibility allowing the State to prioritize its interventions.
  3. Improved Quality of Education
    • Making education quality high priority by focussing on the two T’s- [Technology and Teachers]
    • Improving the following factors that result in a higher quality of education
      • Capacity building of teachers
      • Quality of prospective teachers by strengthening the Teacher Education Institutes like SCERTs and DIETs.
    • Supporting the Rashtriya Avishkar Abhiyan in order to encourage Science and maths learning in schools. 
    • Encouraging programmes that encourage the development of foundational skills in primary schools like  Padhe Bharat Badhe Bharat. 
    • Providing annual library grants in schools.
  4. Digitalizing Education
    • Digitalizing education makes the teacher more efficient and the students can easily grasp the concepts with the visual representation of content.
    • The Samagra Shiksha Scheme plans to improve the quality of education by promoting and supporting digital education.
    • The Ministry of Human Resource Development has launched Operation Digital Board to increase the influence of technology on education. 
    • Further initiatives by the Govt. of India with similar intentions include the following programmes:
      • Shagun
      • UDISE+
      • Shaala Saarthi
      • Shaala Kosh
  5. Strengthening of Schools
    • Composite school grant increased 
    • Providing and encouraging cleanliness activities – Supporting Swachh Vidyalaya.
    • Improving the quality of government school infrastructure 
  6. Focusing on Girl Education
    • Empowering girls at a young age is important. 
    • Providing basic self-defence training to girls
    • Encouraging the ‘Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’ programme. 
  7. Vocational and Soft Skill Development
    • Extending the vocational skill curriculum at the upper primary level.
    • Reinforcing the emphasis on ‘Kaushal Vikas’.
  8. Sports and Physical Education Integration
    • Sports Education to be an integral part of the curriculum
  9. Maintaining the Regional Balance
    • Promoting Balanced Educational Development
    • Favouring the selection of  Educationally Backward Blocks (EBBs), LWE affected districts, Special Focus Districts (SFDs), Border areas and the 117 aspirational districts identified by Niti Aayog.

Funding Pattern of Samagra Shiksha

Samagra Shiksha Scheme is implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme.

  1. It is 100% centrally sponsored for Union Territories without Legislature.
  2. The funds sharing ratio is 60:40 for all other States and Union Territories with Legislature.
  3. For the North-Eastern States and the Himalayan States, the fund sharing pattern for the scheme between Centre and States at present is in the ratio of 90:10.

Samagra Shiksha Scheme:- Download PDF Here

While preparing for UPSC Civil Service Exam, it is important that aspiring candidates integrate Yojana and Kurukshetra magazines in their exam preparation strategy. To make things easier, the below table gives a comprehensive list of topics covered in the Yojana and Kurukshetra magazines that would be relevant from the perspective of topic on education. Refer the below links for more information related to innovation in education, skill development, rural education and other allied subjects. Also refer to the link on education agenda for new India: a discussion with concerned experts that was aired on Rajya Sabha TV (RSTV).

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