Description of the above segments has been laid down below.
The Constitution of India provides a dual polity with a clear division of powers between the Union and the States, each being supreme within the sphere allotted to it. The States in India are not the creation of the Centre nor do they draw their authority from the Union Government. On the other hand, like the Union Government, they draw their authority directly from the Constitution and are free to operate in the field allocated to them by the Constitution. At the outset, it may be noted that the Constitution of India has made most elaborate provisions regarding the relationship between the Union and the States. This was done with a view to minimizing the conflicts between the Centre and the States. But the actual operation of the Centre-State relations for all these years has given rise to a controversy about the wisdom of arrangements made under the Indian Constitution. Critics have expressed doubts about the existing arrangements and demanded re-allocation and adjustment of the Centre-State relations. The relations between the Centre and the States can be conveniently studied under the following centres.