Land Revenue Systems Under the British Rule

Permanent Settlement :

  • It was initiated by Governor General Lord Cornwallis
  • It was implemented in the provinces of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Banaras of UP and North Karnataka
  • It was implemented in 19% of the British areas
  • Cornwallis termed zamindars as the real owners of the land
  • It was started only for a temporary period of 10 years in 1790, however, this system was made permanent in 1793
  • In this system, the zamindars got 1/9th part while gave 8/9th to the government
  • The condition was that if a zamindar was not able to pay some part, he was deprived of his Zamindari

Ryotwari :

  • Peasants were the owners of their land
  • Peasants were directly responsible to give revenue
  • It was implemented in 51% of the British areas
  • It was started in 1792 by Col. Read
  • Thomas Munroe improvised this system in 1820
  • Major fault in this system was the excessive land tax

Mahalwari :

  • The principle of group lagaan was implemented
  • Unit of land tax was known as ‘Mahal’
  • Under this ‘Mahal’, one or more villages could join
  • It was implemented in the areas of Punjab, UP and central Province
  • It was implemented on 30% area
  • It was started by Holt Mc kenzie
  • The rate of land under this system was very high
  • Only cash was accepted under this system

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