Ocean Waves [Geography NCERT Notes For UPSC]

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about Ocean Waves for the IAS exam.

Ocean Waves (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Ocean Waves

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  • Waves are formed by energy passing through water, resulting it to move in a circular motion.
  • Water particles travel only in a small circle as a wave passes.
  • The Wind provides energy to the waves.
  • The Wind causes waves to travel in the ocean and the energy is released on coastlines.
  • The movement of the surface water rarely affects the stagnant deep bottom water of the oceans.
  • As a wave approaches the coastline, it slows down. This is due to the friction happening between the moving water and the seafloor.
  • When the depth of water is less than half the wavelength of the wave, the wave breaks.
  • The largest waves are found in the open oceans.
  • Waves continue to grow larger as they move and absorb energy from the wind.
  • The size and shape of the waves reveal its origin.
  • Steep waves are young ones and are perhaps created by local wind.
  • Slow and steady waves originate from faraway places, probably from another hemisphere.[/su_box]

Characteristics of Waves

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Wave crest and trough The highest of a wave is called the crest.

The lowest point of a wave is called the trough.


Wave height It is the perpendicular distance from the bottom of a trough to the top of a crest of a wave.


Wave amplitude It is one-half of the wave height.
Wave period It is merely the time interval between two successive wave crests or troughs as they pass a fixed point.


Wavelength It is the horizontal distance between two successive crests.


Wave speed It is the rate at which the wave moves through the water.

It is measured in knots.



Ocean Waves (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

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