NCERT Notes: Geography- Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group C Climates

Subject: Geography 
Category: The Fundamentals of Physical Geography 
Topic: Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group C Climates

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group C Climates

 

Koeppen's Group C Climates--Warm Temperate (Mid-Latitude) Climates
 

  • Warm temperate (mid-latitude) climates stretch from 30° – 50° of latitude mainly on the western and eastern margins of continents.
  • These climates usually have warm summers with mild winters.
  • They are classified into four types:
    1. Humid subtropical – Cwa
    2. Mediterranean Climate – Cs
    3. Humid subtropical climate – Cfa
    4. Marine west coast climate – Cfb
Humid Subtropical Climate (Cwa)
  • The Humid subtropical climate is found in the poleward of Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn.
  • This climate is predominantly found in the North Indian plains and interior plains of South China.
  • The Humid Subtropical Climate is similar to Tropical Wet and Dry Climate (Aw) climate excluding that the temperature in winter is warm.
Mediterranean Climate (Cs)
  • Mediterranean climate is found around Mediterranean sea, along the west coast of continents in subtropical latitudes between 30° – 40° latitudes
  • The climate is predominantly found in the
    • Central Chile
    • Central California
    • Along the coast in South Eastern
    • South Western Australia
  • These areas come under the influence of westerly wind in winter and sub-tropical high in summer.
  • Therefore, the climate is characterized by hot, dry summer and mild, rainy winter.
  • The monthly average temperature in winter below 10°C and in summer is around 25° C.
  • The annual precipitation ranges from 35 – 90 cm.
Humid Subtropical Climate (Cfa)
  • The Humid subtropical climate is found in the Eastern parts of the continent lying in the subtropical latitudes.
  • In this area, the air masses are usually uneven and cause rainfall throughout the year.
  • This Climate is found in:
    • The Eastern United States of America
    • Southern and eastern China
    • Southern Japan
    • North-eastern Argentina
    • Coastal South Africa
    • Eastern coast of Australia
  • The annual average of precipitation stretches from 75-150 cm.
  • Frontal precipitation in winter and thunderstorms in summer are usual.
  • The average monthly temperature in winter it differs from 5°-12° C and in summer is about 27°C.
Marine West Coast Climate (Cfb)
  • Marine west coast climate is situated poleward from the Mediterranean climate on the west coast of the continents.
  • The main areas are:
    • North-western Europe
    • West coast of North America
    • North of California
    • Southern Chile
    • South-eastern Australia
    • New Zealand
  • The temperature is moderate and in winter, it is warmer than for its latitude due to marine influence.
  • The mean temperature in winter 4°-10°C and in summer months ranges from 15°-20°C.

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