NCERT Notes: Group E & H Climates (Koeppen's Climate Classification)

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group C Climates.

Group E & H Climates (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

[su_box title=”Group E climates” box_color=”#7960a0″]

  • Group E climates are regulated by the polar and arctic air masses of high latitudes which lie above 60° North and South latitudes.[/su_box]

[su_box title=”Polar Climates (E)” box_color=”#7960a0″]

  • Polar climates are found in the poleward beyond 70° latitude.
  • Polar climates consist of two types:
    • Tundra (ET)
    • Ice Cap (EF)[/su_box]

[su_box title=”Tundra Climate (ET)” box_color=”#7960a0″]

  • The tundra climate (ET) is so called after the types of vegetation, such as lichens, low-growing mosses, and flowering plants.
  • The regions experiencing this climate are:
    • Mount Rainier
    • Macquarie Island
    • Crozet Islands
    • Campbell Island
    • Kerguelen Islands
    • Prince Edward Islands
  • This is the region of permafrost.
  • The subsoil in this region is permanently frozen.
  • The waterlogging and short growing season support only low growing plants.
  • The tundra regions have a very long period of daylight during summer.[/su_box]

[su_box title=”Ice Cap Climate (EF)” box_color=”#7960a0″] 

  • The ice cap climate (EF) found in the interior Greenland and Antarctica.
  • The regions experiencing this climate are:
    • Vostok Station, Antarctica
    • Mount Ararat, in Turkey
    • Mount Everest
    • Scott Base, Antarctica
    • Summit Camp, Greenland
    • Plateau Station, Antarctica
  • The temperature is below freezing point even in summer.
  • This region receives very little precipitation.
  • The ice and snow get amassed and the increasing pressure causes the deformation of the ice sheets and they break.
  • These broken pieces move as icebergs and float in the Antarctic and Arctic waters.[/su_box]

Group H climates 

[su_box title=”Highland Climates (H)” box_color=”#7960a0″]

  • Group H climate contains all highland areas not easily categorized by other climate types.
  • Highland climates are dominated by topography.
  • In high mountains, large changes in average temperature occur over short distances.
  • Precipitation types and intensity of the precipitation also differ spatially across highlands.
  • There is vertical zonation of layering of climatic types with elevation in the mountain environment.[/su_box]

Group E & H Climates (UPSC Notes):- Download PDF Here

Frequently Asked Questions on Koppen’s Group E and H Climate

Q 1. What is Group E climate and how can it be classified?

Ans. Group E climates are regulated by the polar and arctic air masses of high latitudes which lie above 60° North and south latitudes. It can further be classified into two types:
  • Tundra (ET)
  • Ice Cap (EF)

Q 2. What is Group H climate?

Ans. Group H climate contains all highland areas not easily categorized by other climate types. These climates are dominated by topography.

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