NCERT Notes: Geography-Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group E & H Climates

Subject: Geography 
Category: The Fundamentals of Physical Geography 
Topic: Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group E & H Climates

NCERT notes on important topics for the UPSC civil services exam. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams and so on. This article talks about the Koeppen’s Climate Classification- Group C Climates

Group E climates
  • Group E climates are regulated by the polar and arctic air masses of high latitudes which lie above 60° North and South latitudes.
Polar Climates (E)
  • Polar climates are found in the poleward beyond 70° latitude.
  • Polar climates consist of two types:
    • Tundra (ET)
    • Ice Cap (EF)
Tundra Climate (ET)
  • The tundra climate (ET) is so called after the types of vegetation, such as lichens, low-growing mosses, and flowering plants.
  • The regions experiencing this climate are:
    • Mount Rainier
    • Macquarie Island
    • Crozet Islands
    • Campbell Island
    • Kerguelen Islands
    • Prince Edward Islands
  • This is the region of permafrost.
  • The subsoil in this region is permanently frozen.
  • The water logging and short growing season support only low growing plants.
  • The tundra regions have a very long period of daylight during summer.
Ice Cap Climate (EF)

  • The ice cap climate (EF) found in the interior Greenland and Antarctica.
  • The regions experiencing this climate are:
    • Vostok Station, Antarctica
    • Mount Ararat, in Turkey
    • Mount Everest
    • Scott Base, Antarctica
    • Summit Camp, Greenland
    • Plateau Station, Antarctica
  • The temperature is below freezing point even in summer.
  • This region receives very little precipitation.
  • The ice and snow get amassed and the increasing pressure causes the deformation of the ice sheets and they break.
  • These broken pieces move as icebergs and float in the Antarctic and Arctic waters.

Group H climates 
Highland Climates (H)
  • Group H climate contains all highland areas not easily categorized by other climate types.
  • Highland climates are dominated by topography.
  • In high mountains, large changes in average temperature occur over short distances.
  • Precipitation types and intensity of the precipitation also differ spatially across highlands.
  • There is vertical zonation of layering of climatic types with elevation in the mountain environment.

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