Topic of the Day – United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan

UPSC Exam Preparation: Topic of the Day – United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP)

The first group of United Nations military observers arrived in the mission area on 24 January of 1949 to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan in the State of Jammu and Kashmir. These observers, under the command of the Military Adviser appointed by the UN Secretary-General, have formed the nucleus of the United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP).

UNMOGIP is an important topic that figures in international relations for the UPSC IAS exam. This article talks about the details of the UNMOGIP for civil service exam.


  • UNMOGIP was established by the Resolution of the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) and is financed by the regular budget of the United Nations Organisation.
  • UNMOGIP headquarters is in Srinagar in the Indian-administered side of the Line of Control (LoC) from May to October and in Islamabad, Pakistan, from November to April. When UNMOGIP headquarters is located in Srinagar, a Rear headquarters is maintained in Islamabad and vice-versa.
  • United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan has 44 military observers, 25 international civilian personnel from 10 countries and 47 local civilian staff.
  • UNMOGIP is tasked with monitoring the ceasefire line between both the nuclear-armed nations (India and Pakistan) in Jammu and Kashmir.  
  • It is involved in conducting field tasks along the Line of Control. 
  • The reports and summary of investigation with both the parties are shared with the United Nations Secretary-General.

Following the renewed hostilities of 1971, UNMOGIP has remained in the area to observe developments pertaining to the strict observance of the ceasefire of 17 December 1971 and report thereon to the Secretary-General. 

India and Pakistan disagree on UNMOGIP’s mandate in Kashmir because; it is argued by India that the mandate of UNMOGIP does not hold relevance after the Shimla agreement because it was specifically established to observe ceasefire according to the Karachi Agreement. However, it has been maintained by the Secretary-General of the United Nations that the UNMOGIP would continue to function until a resolution has been passed to terminate it. 

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