CNA 25 July 2022:- Download PDF Here
TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS 1 Related B. GS 2 Related GGOVERNANCE 1. Indian sports bodies under scandal and scrutiny C. GS 3 Related SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY 1. The challenges of fiberization ahead of India’s 5G deployment D. GS 4 Related E. Editorials INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS 1. MC12 over, it’s ‘gains’ for the developed world ECONOMY 1. Weighing in on India’s investment-led revival F. Prelims Facts 1. Neeraj Chopra- World Athletics Championship 2. Digital Jyot G. Tidbits H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS 1 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
B. GS 2 Related
Syllabus: Important Aspects of Governance, Transparency & Accountability
Mains: Role of State in sports governance
Context: Recently several sports organizations in India have come under various controversies.
What are the issues?
- The Executive committee of All India Football Federation(AIFF) was dissolved by the Supreme Court for violating the Government of India’s sports code. The administration of AIFF is done by the court mandated Committee of Administrators (CoA).
- It was mandated that by the end of July, AIFF’s constitution should be amended with necessary provisions and the elections completed by September 15. If not, India would face a FIFA ban.
- In recent communication between the International Olympic committee (IOC) and Indian Olympic Association (IOA) , IOC has expressed concerns about the multiple legal proceedings that caused delays and created unnecessary complications in the elections.
- Hockey India is also being administered by the CoA as the Delhi High Court found Hockey India’s executive board in violation of the National Sports Code.
- The International Hockey Federation has advised hockey India to conduct elections based on the rules laid down by the Indian government before the 2023 World Cup hosted by India in January.
- In February this year, the Delhi High court appointed Gita Mittal as the chairperson of the CoA to administer the Table Tennis Federation of India, which was suspended following an inquiry into the match-fixing allegations raised by one of India’s leading players.
- The Supreme Court in 2017 had appointed a CoA in place of BCCI for Cricket administration reforms as suggested by the Justice R.M. Lodha committee.
- Recently, the CBI registered a case against the former President of International Hockey Federation and IOA for alleged misappropriation of Hockey India’s funds.
What is the Sports Code?
- The Government of India in 2011 introduced the National Sports Development Code of India to ensure good governance practices in the management of sports at the national level without interfering in the autonomy of the national sports bodies.
- The National Sports Code laid down restrictions regarding age and tenure of the administrators.
- Violation of the code can put respective federations under a CoA.
- By clearly outlining the rights and duties of the administrative bodies, proper checks and balances should be put in place.
- They should be bought under the ambit of RTI to make the system transparent.
- A separate ‘Corporate Functions’ group can be formed to address the issues of financial irregularities and revenue management.
- Auditing by government agencies will subject these bodies to greater public scrutiny and bring in greater accountability.
Nut Graf: Given the close association of sports with national pride and the influence it has on the psyche of the country, the state’s role is imperative in sports governance. However, this role has to be subtle so that it does not violate the Olympic charter. India can follow the US model of sports administration which is completely open with a minimum role of state in sports governance.
C. GS 3 Related
Syllabus: Indigenisation of technology and developing new technology.
Mains: Significance of 5G and associated challenges
Context: First ever 5G Spectrum auction in India is scheduled to start on July 26 and India is yet to address the fiberization problem necessary for the rollout.
5G Spectrum auction:
- The Union Ministry of Communications is auctioning 72 Ghz of spectrum valid for 20 years which are worth Rs 4.3 lakh crore at base price.
- Frequency bands on sale range from low (600 Mhz, 700 Mhz, 800 Mhz, 900 Mhz, 1800 Mhz, 2100 Mhz, 2300 Mhz, 2500 Mhz) and mid (3.3-3.67 Ghz) to high (26 Ghz).
- Most of the bid is expected around the C band (3.3-3.67 Ghz) airwaves – around which most of the 5G ecosystem has developed globally.
- The Department of Telecommunications has approved Bharti Airtel, Vodafone Idea, Adani Data Networks, and Reliance Jio as the final participants in the auction.
Read more on 5G Technology
Why are optical fiber cables necessary for accessing 5G technology?
- Fiber-based media offers nearly infinite bandwidth and coverage, low latency and high insulation from interference.
- With 5G, there is an increased necessity for fiberisation along with increase in density of mobile towers.
- Fiberization is a process of linking radio towers with each other through optical fiber cables is called fiberization.
- This process aids in full utilization of network capacity, and to carry big amounts of data after 5G rolled out.
- It will also help in getting additional bandwidth and stronger backhaul support.
- The backhaul is a component of the larger transport that is responsible for carrying data across the network.
Where does India stand with respect to tower fiberization?
- As per estimates, India requires 16 times more fiber to transition into 5G.
- Only 33% of the total towers are fiberized in India currently whereas the number stands at 80%-90% in Japan, China and the U.S. and 65%-70% in South Korea as per a report by India Infrastructure Research in 2021.
- The fiber kilometer (fkm) per capita in India is lower than other countries with .09 fkm against desired 1.3 km of fiber per capita.
- At present, existing fiberised towers connected via fiber point of presence can handle data at 01 to 5 Gbps only. For optimal utilization of 5G, data capacity of these towers must be increased
What are the challenges?
- India needs around ₹2.2 lakh crore of investment to fiberise 70% towers in the next 04 years.
- The government of India’s initiatives like, Smart Cities and Bharath Net will further add to the demand of fiber deployment, necessitating a complete tower fiberization.
- Right of Way (RoW) rules, 2016 remain one of the biggest challenges for fibersiation.
- The Indian Telegraph RoW Rules 2016 were gazette notified by the Ministry of communication in 2016 to incorporate nominal one-time compensation and uniform procedure for establishment of Overground Telegraph Line (OTL) anywhere in the country.
- RoW rules require all States/UT’s to adopt the rules.
- But, due to the issues like, nonagreement on the rules by the States, separate bylaws followed by local authorities bypassing state rules, separate departmental rules followed by various ministries, fiberization is delayed.
- GatiShakti Sanchar online portal of Department of Telecommunications (DoT) can help simplify RoW approvals and help deploy cables for 5G.
- Portal will aid in centralisation of RoW approvals and help operators to deploy required infrastructure in a timely manner.
- The DoT revised the RoW rules in October 2021, making it simpler to install aerial optical fiber cable.
- Revised rules now permit the deployment of cables overhead via street light poles and traffic light posts.
- Satellite communication can complement terrestrial networks by providing high-capacity backhaul connectivity to huge numbers of edge servers over wide areas.
- Satellite communication can facilitate 5G connectivity to underserved areas where it is not viable to position terrestrial infrastructure like remote villages, islands or mountainous regions.
Nut Graf: Over the next 05 years with the increase in mobile-phone penetration and decline in data costs over 500 million new internet users will be added in India, creating opportunities for new businesses and the 5G network plays an important role in this. The Government of India should work on overcoming infrastructure roadblocks for the timely rollout of 5G.
D. GS 4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
Syllabus: Important International Institutions, agencies and fora – their Structure, Mandate.
Prelims: WTO; Bali peace clause
Mains: Outcomes at the MC12 and concerns for India
- Recently concluded 12th Ministerial Conference (MC12) of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Loss for India at the MC12:
- The article expresses concerns over the fact that India found itself on the losing side at the 12th Ministerial Conference negotiations of the WTO, whereas the European Union (EU) and some other developed countries were able to get most of the recently concluded MC12.
- As against the comprehensive TRIPS waiver demanded by India and South Africa for the production of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics, the final agreement pushed by the developed countries block led by EU at the MC12 amounts to only cosmetic simplification in certain procedural aspects of compulsory licensing in patent rules and could be of very little help in ensuring access to quality and affordable vaccines and medicines for all. Hence this outcome represents a big gain for the developed countries and a loss for developing countries like India.
- In October 2020, India and South Africa put forth a proposal seeking to temporarily suspend the protection of intellectual property rights to help aid in the production of vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics to help overcome the COVID-19 pandemic.
For detailed information on this issue refer to the following article:
- The developed economies led by the EU have managed to create a window to pursue negotiations on issues related to trade and environment at the WTO. This could adversely impact the economic growth prospects of developing countries and remains a major issue of concern.
Issue of stock holding:
- The Indian Minister of Commerce and Industry, Piyush Goyal had set the issue of having a permanent solution to public stockholding as being India’s top most priority. Despite having the support of more than 80 developing countries, this issue has not found mention anywhere in the ministerial outcome.
- The WTO members have termed food security issue being multi-dimensional and have called for a comprehensive solution. This marks a set-back for India which had been successful to earn a respite in the form of the Bali Peace clause.
Fisheries subsidy issue:
- In the area of fisheries subsidies, India has been able to get only a reprieve of two years to have suitable regulatory mechanisms in place to monitor fish catch and reporting. The failure to do so will result in the prohibition of subsidies to traditional fishermen in India. This would adversely impact the livelihood of fishermen in India.
Taxation of electronic transmission:
- India has also failed in securing the right to raise revenues by taxing electronic transmissions. This robs India of the potential to raise tax revenues.
- The outcomes of the MC12 are indicative of the difficult path ahead for India at the WTO negotiations. The article calls on India’s negotiators to learn lessons from the dynamics at the MC12, and make course corrections to protect India’s interest both in the short as well as long terms.
Nut Graf: The outcomes of the MC12 of the WTO have not been satisfactory for India wherein issues of concern for India were either overlooked and some agreements are detrimental to India’s interests.
Syllabus- Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
Mains- Importance of gross fixed capital formation in an economy; Scenario in India.
- Speaking at the third G20 Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors meeting in Bali, the Indian Finance Minister, Nirmala Sitaraman noted the importance of public capital expenditure programmes in ensuring India’s long-term economic growth prospects.
Success of public investment-led economic growth:
- Public investment-led economic growth has been observed in India.
- To overcome the challenge of economic contraction brought out by the Asian financial crisis of 1997, the then government initiated large scale public infrastructure projects in road building. It initiated Golden Quadrilateral project aimed at linking metro cities with high-quality roads and the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana to ‘provide good all-weather road connectivity to unconnected habitations’ in rural areas.
- The increase in public investment apart from helping create productive assets for the Indian economy also helped crowd in private investment.
- These initiatives helped in an economic revival in India in the 2000s wherein the GDP grew at 8%-9% annually.
- The article expresses serious doubts over the public investment led economic growth in India based on the following arguments.
Expansive definition of investment:
- Though the fixed investment to GDP ratio stood at an impressive 32% in 2021-22 (Ministry of Finance’s Monthly Economic Review), the article argues against going by the face value of this number. The budgetary definition of investment refers to financial investments (which include purchase of existing financial assets, or loans offered to States) and not just capital formation which is a better indicator of the expansion of the productive potential in the economy.
Lag in investment:
- Though there has been an upturn in the aggregate fixed capital formation to GDP ratio in the recent times, the rate is still lower than that observed in the early 2010s.
- While there has been an upturn in gross capital formation and investments in India in recent years, the disaggregation of such investment by sector, types of assets and mode of financing are better indicators of the productive potential of such investments
- In recent times, the shares of agriculture and industry in fixed capital formation/GDP has fallen while the share of Services’ sector has risen. Also within the services sector, the rise has been most notable in transport sector and within transportation sector, it is mostly roads. Thus there has been a very lop-sided growth in investment when it comes to sector wise investments.
- The services sector is not very employment intensive. This is of concern for a developing economy like India where inclusive growth acquires great importance. Also, for healthy domestic output growth, there is a need for balance between “directly productive investments” (in farms and factories) and infrastructure investments.
- The share of manufacturing sector in the investment ratio has witnessed a substantial fall in the last few years. With declining investment share, industrial output growth rate has fallen in India. This has resulted in India’s import dependency going up.
- The public sector’s share stands at 20%, while the private sector still accounts for a substantial share in investments. This is indicative of the limited impact of public expenditure.
Lack of domestic capacity:
- The lack of domestic capacity for essential raw industrial materials and capital goods remain major challenges for the Indian economy.
- This excessive dependency will render India vulnerable to any global and regional economic disruptions.
- The prospects of sustaining investment recovery are likely to get harder with a depreciating rupee and rising inflation
Nut Graf: While the attempts to ramp up public investment to aid economic revival in India are welcome, there continues to remain doubts over the efficacy of such a policy given the associated concerns and challenges when it comes to public investment in India.
F. Prelims Facts
- Neeraj Chopra won silver medal in Javelin throw at the World Athletics Championships.
- The World Athletics Championships are a biennial athletics competition organized by World Athletics.
- The 2022 edition of the championship is being held in the United States of America.
2. Digital Jyot
- It is a beam of light installed by the union government at Central Park, Delhi to pay tribute to freedom fighters as a part of initiatives to celebrate 75 years of Independence.
- It is surrounded by an illuminated metallic floral sculpture inspired by the determination and courage of our freedom fighters and martyrs.
- As per the official site, the design of the floral sculpture finds its inspiration from nature and flowers linked to ideas of hope, positivity and strength.
- The beam gets brighter as more messages paying tribute to freedom fighters are posted by the public on the website.The light will be at its full capacity when the tribute count touches 01 crore mark.
Nothing here today!!!
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
Q1. Consider the following statements about Anushilan Samiti.(Level- Difficult)
- The organization arose from a conglomeration of local youth groups in Bengal in 1902 due to the efforts of Satish Chandra Basu.
- The organization comprised two independent arms in East and West Bengal, Dhaka Anushilan Samiti and the Jugantar group.
- The Jugantar group led by Pulin Behari Das undertook the Barrah dacoity in 1908.
Which of the following statements are correct?
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- Statement 1 is correct, The Anushilan Samiti was established by Satish Chandra Basu with the patronage of Calcutta barrister Pramathanath Mitra on March 24th 1902.
- Statement 2 is correct, Anushilan Samiti propounded revolutionary violence for ending the British Raj in India. Its two arms were the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti centered in Dhaka, and the Jugantar Group centered at Calcutta.
- Statement 3 is incorrect, Pulin Bihari Das was the founder and member of the Dhaka Anushilan Samiti, not Jugantar group.
Q2. Which of the following statement/s is/are incorrect with respect to the Central Administrative Tribunal (CAT)? (Level- Medium)
- The Jurisdiction of CAT extends to the all-India services, the Central civil services, civil posts under the center and civilian employees of defense services.
- The members of CAT are drawn from both judicial and administrative streams and are appointed by the President.
- Appeals against the order of the CAT can be made only in the Supreme Court and not in High Courts.
- 1 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 3 only
- 2 only
- Statement 1 is correct, Established under Article 323, CAT provides for adjudication of disputes and complaints with respect to recruitment and conditions of service of persons appointed to public services and posts in connection with the affairs of the Union or other authorities under the control of the Government.
- Statement 2 is correct, CAT’s members are drawn from legal and administrative fields to provide the benefit of expertise in both domains.
- Statement 3 is incorrect, appeals against the orders of a tribunal could be made in the High Court (and not the SC directly – Chandra Kumar Case, 1997).
Q3. Consider the following statements about the Modhera Sun Temple.(Level- Difficult)
- It was built in the 11th century during the reign of Bhima I of the Chalukya dynasty.
- It is built in the Maru-Gurjara Style of architecture.
Which of the following statement/s is/are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
- Statement 1 is correct, The Sun Temple dedicated to the solar deity Surya is located at Modhera village of Gujarat. It is situated on the bank of the river Pushpavati. It was built during the rule of Bhima I of Chalukya dynasty after 1026-27 CE.
- Statement 2 is correct, the temple complex is built in Maru- Gurjara style also called Chalukyan Style.
- The temple complex has three axially aligned components; the garbhagriha in a hall (gudhamandapa), the outer or assembly hall (sabhamandapa) and a sacred reservoir (kunda).
Q4. Which of the following countries is the largest producer of mangoes in the world? (Level-Medium)
Explanation: India is the largest producer of mangoes, followed by China and Thailand. Almost 20 million tonnes of mangoes are cultivated every year in India.
Q5. Consider the following pairs: (Level- Difficult)
Wildlife Naturally found in
- Blue-finned Mahseer Cauvery River
- Irrawaddy Dolphin Chambal River
- Rusty-spotted Cat Eastern Ghats
Which of the pairs given above are correctly matched?
- 1 and 2 only
- 2 and 3 only
- 1 and 3 only
- 1, 2 and 3
- Statement 01 is correct, Cauvery basin is home to two varieties of Mahseers—Blue finned Mahseer and orange-finned, hump-backed Mahseer.
- Statement 02 is incorrect, Irrawaddy dolphins are found in coastal areas in South and Southeast Asia, and in 03 rivers:
- the Mahakam river in Indonesian Borneo, Mekong river in China and the Irrawaddy river in Myanmar.
- Statement 03 is correct, the rusty spotted cat inhabits the forests of Andhra Pradesh in the Eastern Ghats.
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
- What do you understand by fiberisation? Discuss the challenges associated with it in the light of 5G technology. (10 marks, 150 Words) (GS III – Economy)
- Prospects of sustaining investment recovery are likely to get harder with a depreciating rupee and rising inflation. Analyse. (10 marks, 150 Words) (GS III – Economy)
Read the previous CNA here.
CNA 25 July 2022:- Download PDF Here