13 June 2021: UPSC Exam Comprehensive News Analysis

CNA 13th June 2021:- Download PDF Here

TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. GS 1 Related
B. GS 2 Related
INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS
1. Reviving the spirit of multilateralism
C. GS 3 Related
ENVIRONMENT AND ECOLOGY
1. ‘Operation Olivia’ to the rescue of Olive Ridleys
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
1. ‘Monoclonal antibody treatment beneficial’
D. GS 4 Related
E. Editorials
ECONOMY
1. Bitcoin push
F. Prelims Facts
1. Meet Bharitalasuchus tapani, a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago
2. RNA into DNA
G. Tidbits
1. Great apes in peril
2. FAME II to spur new tech, says Venu
H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions
I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

Category: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

1. ‘Monoclonal antibody treatment beneficial’

Context:

  • Monoclonal antibody treatment has emerged as a relatively effective and safer alternative in treating COVID-19 patients.

Background:

Immune response in human beings:

  • The body’s immune system generates antibodies as a defense mechanism against unfamiliar molecules from bacteria and viruses, termed antigens.
  • Antibodies bind to antigens and kill the invading pathogen.

Monoclonal antibodies:

  • Monoclonal antibodies are identical copies of an antibody that targets one specific antigen.
  • Scientists can make monoclonal antibodies by exposing white blood cells to a particular antigen.
  • Each monoclonal antibody is specific to its matching antigen. Scientists select a single white blood cell or clone and use this as the basis to produce many identical cells, making many identical copies of the monoclonal antibody.

Monoclonal antibody treatment:

  • Monoclonal antibodies are produced in a laboratory setting and then infused into the blood. These monoclonal antibodies fight disease by enlisting natural immune system functions.
  • The Monoclonal antibodies help in reducing the symptoms and disease progression.
  • Monoclonal antibodies have previously been used to treat viral infections such as Ebola and HIV.

Details:

  • Two of the Monoclonal antibodies being used in India include the REGCov2 (Casirivimab and Imdevimab).
  • In these drugs, antibodies for COVID target specific proteins and destroy them before they initiate inflammation.

F. Prelims Facts

1. Meet Bharitalasuchus tapani, a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago

  • The Yerrapalli Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari Basin in Telangana has had several fossils unearthed from it.
  • One of the species identified includes a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago. It has been named Bharitalasuchus tapani.
  • Studies have revealed that the reptile belonged to a family of extinct reptiles named Erythrosuchidae.
  • The Bharitalasuchus tapani were robust animals with big heads and large teeth, and these probably predated other smaller reptiles. They were approximately the size of an adult male lion and might have been the largest predators in their ecosystems.
  • Apart from this erythrosuchid reptile, the fossil assemblage of the Yerrapalli Formation includes many other extinct creatures such as ceratodontid lungfish, rhynchosaur and allokotosaurian.

2. RNA into DNA

  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic acid (RNA) are important molecules in cell biology, responsible for the storage and reading of genetic information that underpins all life.
  • They are both linear polymers, consisting of sugars, phosphates and bases, but there are some key differences which separate the two.
    • Unlike DNA which is double stranded, RNA is single-stranded.
    • The bases in DNA are Adenine (‘A’), Thymine (‘T’), Guanine (‘G’) and Cytosine (‘C’). RNA shares Adenine (‘A’), Guanine (‘G’) and Cytosine (‘C’) with DNA, but contains Uracil (‘U’) rather than Thymine.
    • Unlike DNA which replicates and stores genetic information and functions as a blueprint for all genetic information contained within an organism, RNA converts the genetic information contained within DNA to a format used to build proteins, and then moves it to ribosomal protein factories.
      • Transcription is the process of copying a segment of DNA into RNA. The segments of DNA transcribed into RNA molecules that can encode proteins are said to produce messenger RNA.

Context:

  • A new study notes that as against the current understanding that only DNA transcription into RNA as being possible, the reverse can also happen.

G. Tidbits

1. Great apes in peril

  • A recent study notes that the African great apes, which includes chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas are under threat from massive habitat reduction and destruction.
  • The study looked at the impact of climate change, human population growth and human land use on great ape habitat range, and developed estimates for habitat loss in the best and worst case scenarios.
  • The researchers predict that Africa’s great apes, which include gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos, will lose 85 per cent of their habitat range by 2050.
  • Climate change, human land use and population growth push vegetation and other food sources uphill, leaving the survival of Africa’s great apes, as well as other land animals, up to their ability to climb and adapt to new environments.
  • African ape populations are currently endangered, largely due to habitat loss, poaching, pet trades and climate change.

2. FAME II to spur new tech, says Venu

  • With an aim to promote eco-friendly vehicles, the government had launched the FAME India scheme (Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Strong) Hybrid and Electric Vehicles in India) in 2015.
  • The second phase of FAME India Scheme focuses on supporting electrification of public and shared transportation and aims to support electrification through subsidies for electric vehicles, including buses, passenger cars and two-wheelers.
  • Out of total budgetary support, about 86 percent of fund has been allocated for Demand Incentive so as to create demand for xEVs in the country.
  • The incentives for electric vehicles will help increase penetration and lead to the indigenous development of future electric technology.

H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions

Q1. Which of the following is/are correctly matched?
  1. Operation Blue Star: eliminate armed militants who were holed up in the Golden Temple.
  2. Operation Pawan: Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF’s) operation to wrest control of Jaffna from the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE)
  3. Operation Vijay: Indian operation to push back the infiltrators from the Kargil Sector
  4. Operation Olivia: Indian armed forces ended the rule of the Nizam of Hyderabad

Options:

  1. 1, 2 and 3 only
  2. 2, 3 and 4 only
  3. 1, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: a

Explanation:

  • The annual “Operation Olivia” by the Indian Coast Guard helps protect Olive Ridley turtles as they congregate along the Odisha coast for breeding and nesting.
  • The Coast enforce laws near the rookeries Guard carries out round-the-clock surveillance from November till May utilizing Coast Guard assets and helps
Q2. Consider the following statements with respect to Olive Ridleys:
  1. Olive Ridleys are found in Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic and Indian Ocean.
  2. The Olive Ridley is listed as vulnerable under the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red list.
  3. Coast of Odisha is the largest mass nesting site for them

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 2 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • The olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea), also known commonly as the Pacific ridley sea turtle, is a species of turtle in the family Cheloniidae.
  • The species is one of the most abundant of all sea turtles found in the world.
  • It is primarily found in warm and tropical waters, primarily in the Pacific and Indian Oceans, but also in the warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The Olive Ridley is listed as vulnerable under the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red list.
  • It is included in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Protection Act, 1972, and in the Appendix I of the Convention of International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora.
  • The coast of Odisha is one of the largest mass nesting site for the Olive Ridley Turtles. There are three beaches along the Odisha coast including Gahirmatha, the mouth of the Devi river, and Rushikulya.
Q3. Consider the following statements:
  1. Coral reefs occur in Shallow waters of the tropics
  2. Only hard corals build reefs

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both
  4. None
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: c

Explanation:

  • Given that Coral reefs need sunlight they occur in shallow waters. Reef-building corals require warm water conditions to survive.
  • Soft corals are not capable of building reefs.
Q4. Recently, Bharitalasuchus tapani was in the news. What is it?
  1. A new species of wasp from the genus Kudakrumia identified by scientists in Goa
  2. A carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago
  3. A Zingiber from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
  4. A newly discovered fish fossil from Assam
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: b

Explanation:

  • The Yerrapalli Formation of the Pranhita-Godavari Basin in Telangana has had several fossils unearthed from it.
  • One of the species identified includes a carnivorous reptile that lived 240 million years ago. It has been named Bharitalasuchus tapani. Studies have revealed that the reptile belonged to a family of extinct reptiles named Erythrosuchidae.
  • The Bharitalasuchus tapani were robust animals with big heads and large teeth, and these probably predated other smaller reptiles. They were approximately the size of an adult male lion and might have been the largest predators in their ecosystems.
Q5.Consider the following statements:
  1. The Chief Secretary in a State is appointed by the Governor of that State.
  2. The Chief Secretary in a State has a fixed tenure.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. Both 1 and 2
  4. Neither 1 nor 2
CHECK ANSWERS:-

Answer: d

Explanation:

  • The Chief Secretary in a State is appointed by the government of the state.
  • The Chief Secretary in a State does not enjoy a fixed tenure.

I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions

  1. Bitcoin has seen greater formalization and mainstreaming in the last one year. In this context, explain how cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin work? Why are governments and central banks wary of them? (15 marks, 250 words)[GS-3, Economy]
  2. The G7 countries seek to overcome internal differences and strengthen their economic and geopolitical bond to face multiple challenges from fighting COVID­-19 to tackling the rise of China. Discuss in the context of its latest summit. (15 marks, 250 words)[GS-2, International Relations]

Read the previous CNA here.

CNA 13th June 2021:- Download PDF Here

2 Comments

  1. Plz explain crptocurency . I have doubt in this topic

    1. Hi,
      Please get details about cryptocurrency in the linked article.

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