TABLE OF CONTENTS
A. GS1 Related MODERN INDIAN HISTORY 1. Patel saved India from Balkanisation: PM B. GS2 Related POLITY AND GOVERNANCE 1. Rajasthan Minister booked for seeking ‘Hindu’ votes C. GS3 Related ENVIRONMENT 1. ‘States can fix own slots for crackers’ 2. India among nations that face grave danger to soil biodiversity D. GS4 Related E. Editorials HISTORY 1. The unifier of modern India (Modern Indian History) ECONOMY 1. Universities and patents (IPR Policy) F. Tidbits G. Prelims Fact 1. Namami Gange programme H. UPSC Prelims Practice Questions I. UPSC Mains Practice Questions
A. GS1 Related
- In an article sent to several newspapers on Tuesday, Prime Minister Narendra Modi paid tributes to Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, describing him as a great unifier and the maker of modern India.
- He said every decision of his government was being taken to ensure that the fruits of development reached the most vulnerable, without any corruption or favouritism, just as Sardar Patel would have wanted.
- “The ‘Statue of Unity’ [of Patel] is a symbol of both the unity of hearts and the geographical integrity of our motherland. It is a reminder that, divided, we may not be even able to face ourselves. United, we can face the world and scale new heights of growth and glory,” he said.
- Situated on the banks of Narmada, the statue is the world’s tallest.
- Modi said: “Sardar Patel worked with astonishing speed to dismantle the history of imperialism and create the geography of unity with the spirit of nationalism. He saved India from Balkanisation… Today, we, the 130 crore Indians, are working shoulder to shoulder to build a new India that is strong, prosperous and inclusive.”
- “Two traits synonymous with Sardar Patel are trust and integrity. The farmers of India had unparalleled faith in him… traders and industrialists preferred to work with Sardar Patel because they felt here was a stalwart who had a vision for India’s economic and industrial growth,” said Mr. Modi.
The Role of Sardar Vallabhai Patel in Uniting the Nation
- October 31, 2018 marks the 143rd birth anniversary of Sardar Vallabhai Patel who is one of the founding fathers of Republic of India.
- He was called the Iron man and was the first Home Minister of the country. He had the tough task of unifying the 550 odd princely states into one homogenous country.
- Uniting the Nation was indeed a formidable task because things were done in a context where lot of fast moving developments were taking place.
- If Mahatma Gandhi was the father of the nation, Jawaharlal Nehru was the father of the Indian State, Sardar Vallabhai Patel could be legitimately claimed to be the Father of the Indian Union.
- It was he through the tireless efforts, through persuasion, diplomacy, sometimes threat of coercion, military use and the whole process was a lasting achievement to the building of the Indian Republic.
- The only state which was given special status and special rights was Jammu and Kashmir where it was agreed that it would be protected in the constitution. For others the Instrument of Accession was an indication that they would join the Indian Union and certain promises were made, that their rights would be protected and privileges would be safeguarded. When it came to integration Sardar Vallabhai Patel laid great stress on accession.
- His contribution in the Kashmir crisis, air lifting of the troops was decisive and it was the prompt decision that he was known to take. There was no time lost in getting the troops there and halting the advancement of infiltrators.
- Contribution during Hyderabad crisis – Here it was a police action. It was a clear and decisive step which had not been taken. It had all the potential of creating a hot bed of instability in Hyderabad. Sardar Vallabhai Patel had the same kind of firmness in the case of Goa, but it was overruled because throwing Portuguese out by the use of armed force did not appeal to the government at that time. But later the government had to do it.
- Sardar Vallabhai Patel had skilful combination of diplomatic persuasion of pointing to the larger long term interests of the population and also with a certain amount of arms twisting which made it clear that there would be a price to pay if the rulers did not accept the conditions the Indian government was putting. The rulers tried to balance their own self interest, their own loyalties, and identities with the wellbeing of the people.
- Sardar Vallabhai Patel had a strong will and his decisiveness, taking tough decisions, and his undivided loyalty towards Mahatma Gandhi marks him out among his peers.
- The granting of Privy Purse was logical at that time since the Union was being built with the cooperation of these princes. Subsequently, the relations soured and the Privy Purse was abolished.
B. GS2 Related
- Police have registered a first information report against Rajasthan Minister of State for Rural Development Dhan Singh Rawat for seeking votes in the name of religion.
- At an election rally in his home district Banswara on Saturday, Mr. Rawat purportedly said, “If Muslims can vote for Congress, then all Hindus should also unite and go with the BJP and make it win with a thumping majority.”
- The FIR has been registered under Section 125 (promoting enmity between classes in connection with election) of the Representation of the People Act, 1951.
- Rawat, representing the reserved constituency of Banswara in the State Assembly, also said that the Congress was a “party of Muslims” and the BJP was a protector of India’s ‘Sanatan Sanskriti’ (eternal culture).
Important provisions of the Representation of Peoples Act 1951
- The Representation of People Act 1951 or the RPA 1951 deals with the electoral system in India. This act was passed by the Indian Parliament before the very first General Elections.
- The act also talks about the terms and qualification/disqualification of the members of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha, and also the state legislatures.
Salient Features of the Representation of People Act 1951
- Actual conduct of elections
- Administrative machinery for the conduct of elections
- Election offences
- Election disputes
- Registration of political parties
This act has been amended many times, the latest being in 2013.
- The original RPA 1951 contains 13 parts and 171 sections. Part 2 deals with qualifications and disqualifications of the members of the parliament and the state legislatures.
- Part 4A deals with the registration of political parties. Part 5A deals with the free supply of certain materials to candidates of recognised political parties. Part 13A mentions the Chief Electoral Officer.
- This act is important because it is cited judges frequently in preventing criminals from entering the electoral system and representative bodies of the country.
Section 8 of the RPA 1951
- A person convicted of an offence punishable under certain acts of Indian Penal Code, Protection of Civil Rights Act 1955, Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act 1967, Prevention of Corruption Act 1988, Prevention of Terrorism Act 2002 etc. shall be disqualified, where the convicted person is sentenced to — (i) only fine, for a period of six years from the date of such conviction; (ii) imprisonment, from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.
- A person convicted for the contravention of—(a) any law providing for the prevention of hoarding or profiteering; or (b) any law relating to the adulteration of food or drugs; or (c) any provisions of the Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961.
- A person convicted of any offence and sentenced to imprisonment for not less than two years [other than any offence referred to in sub-section (1) or sub-section (2)] shall be disqualified from the date of such conviction and shall continue to be disqualified for a further period of six years since his release.
- A fourth subsection, i.e., 8(4) was struck down by the Supreme Court in 2013. This subsection had provisions for convicted lawmakers to retain their seats if they filed an appeal within 3 months of their conviction.
- In 2013, the Patna High Court also debarred persons in judicial or police custody from contesting elections.
C. GS3 Related
- The Supreme Court on Tuesday modified its October 23 order restricting the time for bursting crackers on Deepavali and other religious festivals to two hours, between 8 p.m. and 10 p.m.
- Instead, it allowed Tamil Nadu and adjacent southern States to decide when people can burst crackers on festival days, provided the total time does not cross the two-hour mark. This means the authorities can stagger the time-slots and even make it an hour in the morning and another in the night.
- Further, the court said its direction that only green crackers can be manufactured and sold is only applicable to Delhi and the National Capital Region areas.
What are the other possible options to solve Delhi pollution?
- Stubble burning in neighboring states is one of the most important factors in Delhi pollution. It is important to reduce the paddy crop’s duration, which, in turn, increases the farmer’s time to prepare for the sowing of the next wheat crop. Breeding for a reduced duration can help extend the planting window for wheat.
- To find an alternative to stubble burning the most viable technology seems to be what is called Turbo Happy Seeder (THS). This is a tractor-mounted machine that basically cuts and lifts the standing stubble, drills the wheat seeds into the bare soil, and deposits the straw over the sown area as a mulch cover.
- Other sources of pollution like power plants need technological intervention in the form of modern chimneys, washing of coal before its use, policies for ash collection and disposal in order not to release them into the atmosphere.
- Big data analysis can be helpful in order to understand the pattern of pollution in Delhi. To know the favorable area and conditions and to take necessary steps then can be done with big data analysis.
- Vacuum cleaning of roads regularly, use of sprinklers, sprayers systems to settle dust in roadways etc. will be helpful to curb dust getting into the atmosphere. Spray water from helicopters or aircraft to tackle dust pollution in an emergency can be explored.
- Switching over to green technologies, green energy, making the green buildings, reducing carbon footprints by institutions for ex. Indira Gandhi airport became zero carbon emitting airport recently.
- Air purifiers, portable and car air purifiers, air quality monitoring devices can be installed in homes in order to protect people in emergency cases.
- The severe air pollution problem faced by Delhi indicates the gross faults in urban planning and irresponsible attitude by government agencies and people.
- Increasingly moving towards green ways of living, interstate co-operation, de-urbanization, developing satellite towns, developing public transport systems, shifting industries outside cities, adopting international practices like promoting bicycles, odd-even policy, carpooling, parking rules etc. is the way out.
- India’s soil biodiversity is in grave peril, according to the Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas prepared by the World Wide Fund for Nature.
- The WWF’s ‘risk index’ for the globe — indicating threats from loss of above-ground diversity, pollution and nutrient over-loading, over-grazing, intensive agriculture, fire, soil erosion, desertification and climate change — shows India among countries whose soil biodiversity faces the highest level of risk.
- Coloured red on the Atlas, these include Pakistan, China, several countries in Africa and Europe, and most of North America.
- The two key drivers of biodiversity loss were the over-exploitation of natural resources and agriculture, the WWF added in its report.
- While India’s per capita ecological footprint was less than 1.75 hectares/person (the lowest band among countries surveyed), its high population made it vulnerable to an ecological crisis, even if per-capita consumption remained at current levels, the WWF warned.
- Soil biodiversity encompasses the presence of micro-organisms, micro-fauna (nematodes and tardigrades for example), and macro-fauna (ants, termites and earthworms).
- Soil biodiversity is generally defined as the variability of living organisms in soil and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
- The threat – decline in Soil Biodiversity – has been described as a reduction of forms of life living in soils (both in terms of quantity and variety) and of related functions.
- Soils are a globally important reservoir of biodiversity. They contain at least one quarter to one-third of all living organisms on the planet yet little is known about them, as only around 1% of soil microorganisms have been identified compared to 80% of plants.
- Soil biodiversity decline is usually related to some other deterioration in soil quality and at local levels, it is clear that biodiversity is in decline.
- For example, soil sealing (the permanent covering of soil with hard surfaces, such as roads and buildings) causes the death of the soil biota by cutting off water and carbon and nutrient inputs. In other cases, soil biodiversity decline can be linked with erosion, organic matter depletion, salinization, contamination and compaction.
D. GS4 Related
Nothing here for today!!!
A Brief Note on Sardar Patel:
- Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel is a revered name in Indian politics. A lawyer and a political activist, he played a leading role during the Indian Independence Movement. After independence, he was crucial in the integration of over 500 princely states into the Indian Union. He was deeply influenced by Gandhi’s ideology and principles, having worked very closely with leader. Despite being the choice of the people, on the request of Mahatma Gandhi, Sardar Patel stepped down from the candidacy of Congress President, which ultimately turned out to be the election to choose the first Prime Minister of independent India. He was the first Home Minister of Independent India and his uncompromising efforts towards consolidation of the country earned him the title ‘Iron Man of India’.
- The task of reconstructing India – territorially and emotionally – was immense. Entire nation was going through a period of mayhem. There were forces at play which wanted a divided nation. The big question for leaders like Mahatma Gandhi at the time of partition was whether there will be two nations once British are gone or 565 different nations. At such a time, responsibility of reconstruction of India fell in the able hands of Iron Man – Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel.
- Sardar Patel despite his falling health and age never lost sight of the larger purpose of creating United India. VP Menon who ably assisted Sardar Patel in this enormous task writes in The Story of the integration of the Indian Sates, ‘India is one geographical entity. Yet, throughout her long and chequered history, she never achieved political homogeneity……Today, for the first time in the country’s history, the writ of a single central Government runs from Kailas to Kanyakumari, from Kathiawar to Kamarupa (the old name of Assam).’ Sardar Patel played an instrumental role in creating this India.
- Congress had given its assent to the June 3 plan which was about partitioning India into two territories – India and Pakistan. India was then a mosaic of British occupied territory and 565 princely states. The princely states had to choose between joining either of the two nations or remain independent.
- Few princely states like Travancore, Hyderabad, Junagadh, Bhopal and Kashmir were averse to joining the state of India while others like Gwalior, Bikaner, Baroda, Patiala and others proactively joined India.
- Sardar Patel was aware ‘you will not have a united India if you do not have a good all-India Service’, therefore before embarking on reorganization of states, he build confidence in the ‘Steel Frame’ or the Indian civil services. Sardar Patel worked tirelessly to build a consensus with the princely states but did not hesitate in employing methods of Sama, Dama, Dand and Bhed whereever necessary. Sardar Patel along with his aide VP Menon designed ‘Standstill Agreements and Instrument of Accession’ accommodating requests and demands from various rulers.
- Sardar Patel was also conscious of the fact that mere political reorganization of this land was not enough. He was aware that the wounded civilization of India needed to be stirred to its core and woken up from the past slavery and misery.
- There was an urgent need to rekindle among the people of India the bond they shared with their diverse cultures. On November 13, 1947, Sardar Patel, the then deputy Prime Minister of India, vowed to rebuild Somnath Temple. Somnath had been destroyed and built several times in the past and the story of its resurrection from ruins this time would be symbolic of the story of the resurgence of India. The then President of India, Dr. Rajendra Prasad speaking at the inaugural ceremony at the temple said, “It is my view that the reconstruction of the Somnath Temple will be complete on that day when not only a magnificent edifice will arise on this foundation, but the mansion of India’s prosperity will be really that prosperity of which the ancient temple of Somnath was a symbol.” He added, “The Somnath temple signifies that the power of reconstruction is always greater than the power of destruction.”
- Sardar Patel played a heroic role in the reconstruction of the Indian civilization, and at a time when Prime Minister Narendra Modi has given a call for ‘New India’, Patel’s words in a letter to Princely rulers are more relevant than ever:
- These words were “We are at a momentous stage in the history of India. By common endeavour, we can raise the country to new greatness, while lack of unity will expose us to unexpected calamities. I hope the Indian States will realise fully that if we do not cooperate and work together in the general interest, anarchy and chaos will overwhelm us all great and small, and lead us to total ruin…….let it be our proud privilege to leave a legacy of mutually beneficial relationship which would raise this sacred land to its proper place amongst the nations of the world and turn it into an abode of peace and prosperity.”
- It is important to note that Sardar Patel’s foresight and tactful navigation of the most turbulent period in post-Independence, and the resolve he demonstrated in integrating the more than 500 disparate princely States into the Dominion of India is an unparalleled accomplishment in modern history.
- Even Lord Mountbatten had hailed Patel’s feat. Lord Mountbatten, who was the last Viceroy of India, had said: “By far the most important achievement of the present government is the unification of the States into the Dominion of India. Had you failed in this, the results would have been disastrous… Nothing has added to the prestige of the present government more than the brilliant policy you have followed with the States.”
- What makes the merger of the princely States truly incredible is the fact that the princely rulers had the option at that time to either accede to India or Pakistan or remain independent.
- Yet, Patel’s sagacity, foresight, patriotism, tact, persuasive powers and abiding commitment to fair play enabled him to untangle a highly complex political and social problem of an unprecedented scale, without triggering any kind of revolt or civil unrest.
- However, he was also compelled to use coercion by launching ‘Operation Polo’ to liberate and integrate Hyderabad after the Nizam of Hyderabad entertained false hopes of either joining Pakistan or remaining independent. In a swift operation lasting five days, Hyderabad State was liberated in September 1948.
- Experts believe that at the most critical time when the country’s political unity was in jeopardy, India found the man of the moment in Sardar Patel, who displayed amazing patience, tact and a steely determination in dealing with an intransigent ruler, who refused to see the writing on the wall and even wanted to take the issue to the United Nations.
- Displaying statesmanship of the highest order, Sardar Patel prevented the attempts to not only Balkanise India but internationalise the issue as well.
- The complicated case of Junagarh, Gujarat, was also handled with dexterity by Patel.
- Some experts believe that the problem of Jammu and Kashmir would have been resolved long back had Sardar Patel been given a free hand to handle it at that time.
Builder of India
- Patel himself termed the entire exercise as a “bloodless revolution” when he wanted the Constituent Assembly to consider privy purse settlements for the surrender by the rulers of all their ruling powers and the dissolution of the States as separate units.
- Patel was an ardent follower of Mahatma Gandhi.
- Patel never swerved in his loyalty to his mentor, although there were occasions when he differed with him. Similarly, he did not see eye-to-eye with Jawaharlal Nehru on certain issues, including the handling of Jammu and Kashmir. But he did not allow these differences or personal ego to come in the way of protecting the larger interests of the country — which were at the core of his heart. He worked shoulder-to-shoulder with Nehru in building a modern India.
- Patel was a multifaceted personality. He was a dynamic political leader, an organiser par excellence, a competent administrator and a skilful negotiator.
- After coming under the influence of Mahatma Gandhi, he became his loyal follower and successfully organised peasants against the imposition of taxes by the British at Kheda and Bardoli, Gujarat, and in the process he earned the title of ‘Sardar’ for his leadership qualities. The manner in which he marshalled the peasants and the unflinching stand taken by him eventually forced the authorities to roll back the taxes.
- The Iron Man of India was the chief architect of India’s steel frame — the civil services.
- Thus, the All India Services were seen as an important cementing force in promoting the unity and integrity of the nation.
- It is in the fitness of things that the National Police Academy located on the outskirts of Hyderabad, Telangana, is named after him, as a tribute to the statesman.
- Another aspect of the Sardar that needs to be highlighted is his graciousness and magnanimity in readily abiding by Mahatma Gandhi’s advice to withdraw his candidacy for the post of Congress President in favour of Pandit Nehru in 1946, although a majority of State Congress committees supported his candidature. It was apparent that the Congress President would become the first Prime Minister of India. It once again proved his noble intention of placing the country’s interests above self.
- His love for the motherland was best described by Maulana Azad when he said: “He made his choice out of two courses that come before a man, namely would he live for his country or for himself? Sardar chose his country.”
A Brief Note on the National IPR Policy:
- The National IPR Policy is a vision document that aims to create and exploit synergies between all forms of intellectual property (IP), concerned statutes and agencies.
- It sets in place an institutional mechanism for implementation, monitoring and review. It aims to incorporate and adapt global best practices to the Indian scenario.
- This policy shall weave in the strengths of the Government, research and development organizations, educational institutions, corporate entities including MSMEs, start-ups and other stakeholders in the creation of an innovation-conducive environment, which stimulates creativity and innovation across sectors, as also facilitates a stable, transparent and service-oriented IPR administration in the country.
- The Policy recognizes that India has a well-established TRIPS-compliant legislative, administrative and judicial framework to safeguard IPRs, which meets its international obligations while utilizing the flexibilities provided in the international regime to address its developmental concerns. It reiterates India’s commitment to the Doha Development Agenda and the TRIPS agreement.
- It is important to note that while IPRs are becoming increasingly important in the global arena, there is a need to increase awareness on IPRs in India, be it regarding the IPRs owned by oneself or respect for others’ IPRs.
- The importance of IPRs as a marketable financial asset and economic tool also needs to be recognised. For this, domestic IP filings, as also commercialization of patents granted, need to increase. Innovation and sub-optimal spending on R&D too are issues to be addressed.
- It is important to note that Universities and patents benefit each other.
How do Patents help Universities?
- Patents help universities in the following ways:
- It helps them improve their ranking,
- establish an innovation ecosystem,
- incubate knowledge-based start-ups,
- earn additional revenue and measure research activity.
- Further, it is important to note that in its biggest push to create entrepreneurial universities, the University Grants Commission (UGC) has now asked all universities in India to set up Intellectual Property (IP) Centres.
What will Universities face as they line up to set up these centres?
- They will face a strange human resources problem, i.e. despite the policy push to have more IP, we simply do not have enough IP professionals in the country.
- It is important to note that the dearth of IP professionals is a problem related to the field of intellectual property itself.
- Its recent rise to prominence in the international arena, thanks to various international treaties and trade agreements, alongwith with the legal-centric approach where law schools and colleges are the only institutions which mandate teaching these subjects, are reasons why the supply of IP professionals is not keeping pace with demand.
- However, experts believe that there is a great opportunity now that should not be missed.
- It is important to note that the Central government conducts the only competitive examination in the country to check a person’s proficiency in IP.
- Experts believe that fine-tuning the patent agent examination to cater to the growing IP needs of the country can be a successful way to build a band of professionals and create career opportunities.
Points Concerning Patent exam
- On October 28, 2018, the Central government of India conducted the competitive examination to test proficiency in patent law, a type of intellectual property right (IPR), after a hiatus of two years.
- Any Indian citizen with a bachelor’s degree in science or technology can take the examination. Upon clearing it the person is entitled to practise before the Patent Office as a registered patent agent.
- It is important to note that qualifying the exam allows science graduates to draft, file and procure patents from the Patent Office on behalf of inventors.
- India witnessed significant changes in IPRs since the introduction of the National IPR Policy in 2016.
Some Noteworthy Statistics:
- The grants rates at the Patent Office have increased: in 2017-2018, there was a 32% increase in the number of patents granted compared to the earlier year.
- The Patent Office increased its workforce with the inclusion of 459 new examiners and is on the lookout for more.
- The timeline for filing responses to official objections for patents has been reduced by half.
- While the disposal rate has increased, the filing rate for patents has not changed significantly. In 2016-17, the Patent Office reported a dip of 3.2% in filing compared to the previous financial year.
Issues concerning the establishment of such centres in Universities:
- The new policy has pushed universities to file more patents.
- Ignited by the call to have more IPRs, the higher education sector has witnessed many reforms.
- Further, the UGC’s call to universities, highlighted earlier, has come after a series of policy directives to introduce awareness about IP in higher educational institutions.
- The number of patents applied for, granted and commercialised by universities and institutes is factored in in the National Institutional Ranking Framework (NIRF) rankings: no surprise that the top ranked engineering institutes in India are also the leading filers of patents.
- Whether a higher educational institute has an innovation ecosystem could also have a bearing, with the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, awarding up to 24 points to an institute which sets up an innovation ecosystem and has a facility for identifying and promoting IPRs.
- The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) model curriculum for its member institutions lays emphasis on the need for IPR education in technical institutes.
- As the IPR Chair at IIT Madras, I was part of a committee constituted to draft the IPR guidelines for institutions under the AICTE.
- The lack of IP professionals to teach IP was one of the reasons the committee could not suggest the mandatory introduction of IP courses in all technical institutes. Online courses on IPR are available on the National Programme on Technology Enhanced Learning platform.
- Though thousands register every year, much needs to be done to build capacity on IP in universities. We need to focus on careers rather than courses.
India’s Patent Density:
- India has a poor patent agent density, with only about 2,000 registered patent agents currently in practice.
- The last time when the Patent Office conducted the patent agent exam, in 2016, around 2,600 candidates took it, a paltry number if one looks at the ambitious goals set by the IPR Policy.
- It is important to note that despite the infrequent manner in which the examination has been conducted, the private sector does give good weightage to the examination as it is considered to be the de facto IP qualification today.
- The ambitious goal set by India’s IPR Policy will be realised only when the examination becomes the foundation for making a career in IPR.
- It is important to note that in a dynamic field such as intellectual property, in order to create a band of qualified IP professionals there should be a push towards post-qualification continuous education as well.
- In conclusion, to achieve this, the format, membership, syllabus and the frequency of the patent agent examination will need to be addressed.
- This will not only increase the number and quality of IP professionals in the country but also become a new career choice for graduates with a degree in science and technology.
Nothing here for today!!!
G. Prelims Fact
- The Executive Committee (EC) of the National Mission for Clean Ganga has approved 12 projects worth Rs. 929 Crore under the Namami Gange programme in its 16th meeting held recently.
Namami Gange Programme
- Namami Gange programme was launched as a mission to achieve the target of cleaning river Ganga in an effective manner with the unceasing involvement of all stakeholders, especially five major Ganga basin States – Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and West Bengal.
- The programme envisages: River Surface Cleaning, Sewerage Treatment Infrastructure, River Front Development, Bio-Diversity, Afforestation and Public Awareness.
- The program would be implemented by the National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG), and its state counterpart organizations i.e., State Program Management Groups (SPMGs).
- In order to improve implementation, a three-tier mechanism has been proposed for project monitoring comprising of a) High level task force chaired by Cabinet Secretary assisted by NMCG at national level, b) State level committee chaired by Chief Secretary assisted by SPMG at state level and c) District level committee chaired by the District Magistrate.
- The program emphasizes on improved coordination mechanisms between various Ministries/Agencies of Central and State governments.
H. Practice Questions for UPSC Prelims Exam
Question 1. The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO) Peace Mission 2018 was held in which of the following countries?
Question 2. Which of the following is/are members of the G-20?
- Saudi Arabia
Select the correct answer from the options given below:
- 1 and 2 only
- 2, 3 and 4 only
- 1, 3 and 4 only
- All of the above
Question 3. Consider the following statements with reference to United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2018 report:
- According to report number of hungry people in the world is rising.
- It is an overview of progress towards achieving 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
Which of the statements given above is/ are correct?
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
I. Practice Questions for UPSC Mains Exam
- The ambitious goal set by India’s IPR Policy rests on how universities embrace patents. What is your opinion on this? (10 Marks; 150 words)
- “By common endeavour we can raise the country to a new greatness, while a lack of unity will expose us to fresh calamities.” Examine the relevance of this statement in the present context. (15 Marks; 250 words)
Also, check previous Daily News Analysis
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