In each district of India, there are various types of subordinate or lower courts. They are
- Civil courts,
- Criminal courts and
- Revenue courts.
These Courts hear civil cases, criminal cases and revenue cases, respectively.
- Civil cases pertain to disputes between two or more persons regarding property, breach of agreement or contract, divorce or landlord-tenant disputes. Civil Courts settle these disputes. They do not award any punishment, as a violation of law is not involved in civil cases.
- Criminal cases relate to the violation of laws. These cases involve theft, dacoity, rape, pickpocketing, physical assault, murder, etc. These cases are filed in the lower court by the police, on behalf of the state, against the accused. In such cases, the accused, if found guilty, is awarded punishment like fine, imprisonment or even death sentence.
- Revenue cases relate to land revenue on agricultural land in the district.