Why is Article 14, 19 and 21 called the Golden Triangle?

Article 14 (Right to Equality), 19 (Right to Freedom) and 21 (Right to Life and Liberty) are popularly known as the ‘golden triangle’ of the Indian Constitution. They are of prime importance and breathe vitality in the concept of the rule of law.

These rights are regarded as the basic principles for the smooth running of life for a citizen. The golden triangle provides full protection to individuals from any encroachment upon their rights.

The Supreme Court in the case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India held that a law depriving a person of ‘personal liberty’ has not only to stand the test of Article 21 but also Article 14 and Article 19.

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