Difference Between Bacteria and Fungi

Though they are minuscule, bacteria and fungi differ in their cellular makeup. For instance, bacteria are prokaryotic entities, and fungi are eukaryotes.

Bacteria

  • These are prokaryotic entities
  • Bacteria are single-celled
  • They do not have a nucleus or any other organelle, and cannot reproduce sexually
  • They have a cell wall made of peptidoglycan
  • Most of these are found hosted in our intestines safeguarding us from pathogens, aiding in food digestion and helping synthesize vitamins

Fungi

  • Eukaryotic entities and multicellular
  • The nuclei contain chromosomes and other organelles such as ribosomes and mitochondria
  • They have a cell wall made of chitin

Difference Between Bacteria and Fungi

The table below lists some of the important differences between Bacteria and fungi

Bacteria Fungi
Definition
Most ancient entities known, microscopic, unicellular, prokaryotic, the cell structure is rather simple Eukaryotic, Multicellular, the cell structure is complicated
Producers/Decomposers
Can be both producers (chemosynthetic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria) and decomposers (Soil bacteria) Fungi are typically decomposers
Features
  • Cell organelles are absent
  • Nucleus is absent
  • Cell wall is made of peptidoglycan
  • Cell organelles are present
  • Nucleus is present
  • Cell wall is made of chitin
pH environment for best growth
Neutral pH value (6.5-7.0) Slightly acidic where pH is 4-6
Presence of cell membrane
Below the cell wall Yes, present
Shape/structure
3 different shapes

  • Round – cocci
  • Spiral – Spirella
  • Rod – Bacillus
Mostly thread-like structures known as hyphae but vary in shapes
Sterols in the cell membrane
Absent, except in mycoplasma Present
Nutrition mode
Autotrophs, mostly heterotrophs Heterotrophs feed on dead and decaying matter
Reproduction mode
Asexual (binary fission) Either sexual or asexual
Locomotion
Through structures known as a flagellum Non-motile
Energy source
Proteins, sugar, fats Used and already existing sources from the environment
Sensitivity to
Antibiotics such as Chloramphenicol, Penicillin Griseofulvin
Resistance towards
Griseofulvin Antibiotics such as Chloramphenicol, Penicillin
Pathogens causing these diseases
Leprosy, Cholera, Tuberculosis, Tetanus Aspergillosis, Athlete’s foot, Allergic bronchopulmonary
Cellular Components
  • Nucleoid
  • Pilus
  • Glycocalyx
  • Mesosomes
  • Cell wall
  • Flagellum
  • Fimbriae
  • Granules
  • Ribosomes
  • Endospore
  • Cell membrane
  • Nucleus
  • Cytoplasm
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisomes
  • Lysosomes
  • Cell wall
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Plasma membrane
  • Ribosomes
Example
Lactococcus lactis, faecal bacteria, Escherichia coli Brewer’s yeast, White button mushroom

Microbes are ubiquitous, found in every possible nook and corner as they are able to adapt to any harsh climatic condition. Bacteria and fungi are microbes, tiny/microscopic inhabiting in almost every ecosystem. Where some can be harmful, some other microbes actively participate in biological processes, crucial biological cycles taking place, thereby playing a vital role ecologically.

Explore more differences between bacteria and fungi or discover other articles and important concepts for NEET 2020 at BYJU’S.

 

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