Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Organisms and Populations. These flashcards on Organisms and Populations are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Organisms and Populations, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.
|Name of the NEET sub-section||Topic||Flashcards helpful for|
|Biology||Organisms and Populations||NEET exams|
|Habitat||A place, where an organism is adapted to live, grow and reproduce
E.g. grasslands, mountains, deserts, etc.
|Niche||Niche describes the physical space occupied and the functional role played by an organism in an ecosystem|
|Eurythermal||Organisms, who can tolerate a wide range of temperatures|
|Stenothermal||Organisms, who can tolerate a narrow range of temperatures|
|Euryhaline||Organisms, who can tolerate a wide range of salinity|
|Stenohaline||Organisms, who can tolerate a narrow range of salinity|
|Regulators||Organisms, who have the capability of thermoregulation and osmoregulation by physiological or behavioural means and maintain homeostasis
E.g. Birds, mammals, some lower vertebrates and invertebrates
|Conformers||They cannot maintain a constant internal environment
Internal temperature and osmotic pressure changes with the ambience
E.g. 99 percent of animals and all the plants
|Migration||Temporary migration to avoid a short time period of unfavourable conditions
E.g. Siberian cranes migrate to Keoladeo National Park (Bharatpur, Rajasthan)
|Suspension||Temporary reduction of metabolic activity and a dormant state to survive unfavourable conditions
E.g. thick-walled spores, dormant seeds
|Hibernation||A temporary state of inactivity to avoid winters
E.g. polar bears, bats, etc.
|Aestivation||A temporary state of inactivity to avoid summers
E.g. snails, fishes, amphibians, reptiles
|Diapause||A suspended state in unfavourable conditions
|Endotherms||Animals, which regulate their internal temperature by internal metabolic processes.
E.g. birds and mammals
|Ectotherms||Animals, which depend on external heat resources for regulating internal temperature
E.g. amphibians, reptiles, invertebrates
|Homeotherms||Their body temperature remains constant and have a narrow range of temperature
E.g. birds and mammals
Not all homeotherms are endothermic, e.g. desert lizards
|Poikilotherms||Their body temperature varies with the surrounding environment
E.g. fish, reptiles, amphibians
They are mostly ectothermic
|Allen’s Rule||It states that the surface area to volume ratio of animals’ bodies vary with the habitat they are adapted to
E.g. Animals adapted to colder climates have shorter limbs and ears to reduce heat loss
|Population||A group of interbreeding individuals living in a geographical area and competing for similar resources|
|Population density||A measure of population size
A number of individuals residing in an area. It can also be measured in terms of biomass or per cent cover
Mostly estimated, e.g. tiger census is based on pug marks and fecal pellets, fish caught per trap, etc.
Nt+1 = Nt + [(B + I) – (D + E)]
|Increase in population density||Natality (B)- number of births in a given time period
Immigration (I)- number of individuals come into the habitat
|Decrease in population density||Mortality (D)- number of deaths in a given time period
Emigration (E)- number of individuals left the habitat
|Predation||A common mechanism of feeding in an ecosystem
Killing and eating an animal or plant
E.g. Herbivores, carnivores, etc.
|Parasitism||Depending on a living organism for food and shelter
One is harmed and another is benefited
E.g. ectoparasites- lice, ticks, cuscuta on hedge plants
endoparasites- liver fluke, various microbes
|Brood parasitism||A bird laying its egg in another bird’s nest
E.g. cuckoo leaves its eggs in crow’s nest
|Competition||Competition between two closely related or unrelated species for common resources
Competitively inferior species may get eliminated
E.g. flamingoes compete with zooplankton in lakes
|Mutualism||Interaction, where both the species are mutually benefited
E.g. lichens, mycorrhiza, pollinating insects and flowers, fig and wasp, etc.
|Commensalism||Interaction between two species, where one is benefited and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
E.g. Orchid is an epiphyte on a mango branch, cattle egrets, clownfish and sea anemone
|Amensalism||Interaction between two species, where one species is harmed and another remain unaffected
E.g. black walnut secretes a substance, which kills herbaceous plants, Penicillium kills bacteria due to penicillin secretion, grazing by cattle
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