Flashcards For NEET Biology - Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Flashcards for NEET Biology are designed to boost your NEET preparation. Find below flashcards for Photosynthesis in Higher Plants. These flashcards on Photosynthesis in Higher Plants are prepared as per the NEET syllabus. This is helpful for aspirants of NEET and other exams during last-minute revision. Flashcards For NEET Biology – Photosynthesis in Higher Plants, covers all the important points that are frequently asked in the exam. Check BYJU’S for the full set of Flashcards and Study material for NEET Biology. Solve NEET Biology MCQs to check your understanding and outperform in the exam.

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Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

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Photosynthesis in Higher Plants

Joseph Priestley

Discovered oxygen

Bell jar experiment to show restoration of air by plants

Jan Ingenhousz

Importance of sunlight and green parts in photosynthesis

Julius von Sachs

Production of glucose by plants and storage as starch

T.W Engelmann

Action spectrum of photosynthesis and showed that maximum absorption occurs in blue and red light

Experimented on green alga Cladophora

Cornelius van Niel

Proved that oxygen is evolved from splitting of water and not from CO2

Experimented on purple and green sulphur bacteria

Light reaction

Occurs in the membrane system of chloroplasts, i.e. grana thylakoids and stroma lamellae

light energy is trapped, photolysis of water to liberate oxygen and ATP and NADPH are produced

Dark reaction

Occurs in stroma matrix

Biosynthetic phase of sugar synthesis

Utilises ATP and NADPH produced in the light reaction

Light Harvesting Complex (LHC)

Hundreds of pigments forming antennae

Increase efficiency by absorbing different wavelengths of light


Reaction centre- Chlorophyll ‘a’ P700

Primary electron acceptor is Fe-S protein


Reaction centre- Chlorophyll ‘a’ P680

Primary electron acceptor is pheophytin

Noncyclic photophosphorylation

Z-scheme, occurs only in grana thylakoid

First PSII and then PSI work in series

Phosphorylation of ADP to ATP and reduction of NADP to NADPH + H+ and O2

Cyclic photophosphorylation

Only PSI

Occurs in stroma lamellae, it lacks PSII and NADP reductase enzyme

Phosphorylation of ADP to form ATP

Chemiosmotic hypothesis

Peter Mitchell

ATP synthesis is coupled with the development of proton gradient across the membrane

Oxidative phosphorylation (respiration)- mitochondria

Photophosphorylation- chloroplast


Thylakoid lumen – low pH, High H+ due to splitting of water

NADP reductase present towards stroma utilises protons and electrons to reduce NADP+

ATP Synthase- CF0 (transmembrane proton channel), CF1 (catalyses ATP synthesis)

C3 pathway

Melvin Calvin

First CO2 fixation product- 3 carbon acid PGA (3-phosphoglyceric acid)

Occurs in all photosynthetic plants (C3, C4, CAM)

Calvin cycle reactions

1- Carboxylation of RuBP to 3PGA

2- Reduction of 3PGA to triose phosphate utilising ATP and NADPH

3- Regeneration of RuBP



CO2 acceptor is C3 cycle.

Enzyme RuBisCO catalyses carboxylation and oxygenation reaction (photorespiration)

C3 cycle utilises

Six rounds of the cycle to produce a glucose molecule which utilises

6 CO2, 18 ATP and 12 NADPH

C4 pathway

Hatch Slack Pathway

First CO2 fixation product- OAA (oxaloacetate)

Primary CO2 acceptor- PEP (phosphoenolpyruvate)

Occurs in maize, sorghum, etc. having Kranz anatomy

C4 cycle reactions

Mesophyll cells- CO2 fixation by carboxylation of PEP by PEPcase to form OAA

Bundle sheath cells- Decarboxylation of OAA to release CO2 which enters Calvin cycle.


RuBP is oxidised to form 1 molecule of PGA and 2 molecules of Phosphoglycolate and CO2 is released. The process competes with Calvin cycle in C3 plants and wastes energy produced.

Law of limiting factors


Affect of temperature on photosynthesis

C3 and temperate plants- low optimum temperature

C4 and tropical plants- high optimum temperature

Affect of CO2 level on photosynthesis

Rate of photosynthesis increases with an increased level of CO2 at a high light intensity.

C4 plants have a lower saturation level compared to C3

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