The process of breaking down the complex food substance into simpler particles which can be easily absorbed into the bloodstream is termed as Digestion. In this process, various mechanical and biochemical processes are involved. The human digestive system is composed of the alimentary canal and associated glands. Mouth is situated at the anterior part whereas anus is situated at the posterior part of the body. The alimentary canal is divided into five main parts- mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and lastly large intestine.
The mechanism of digestion takes place with the chewing of food and contact with saliva. Saliva is the type of liquid that is secreted by the salivary glands. These salivary glands consist of salivary amylase which is an enzyme that begins the digestion of starch. The saliva consists of mucus that lubricates the food and hydrogen carbonate that gets the ideal conditions of pH.
The bolus then travels to the esophagus and within the stomach with the help of peristalsis. The gastric juices present in the stomach begins protein digestion. The gastric juice contains pepsin and hydrochloric acid. These two chemicals may damage the walls of the stomach. The mucus secreted by the stomach provides a slimy layer that serves as a shield against the adverse effects of the chemicals. During protein digestion, the mechanical mixing happens with the help of peristalsis. This allows the food to get mixed with the digestive enzymes.
Types Of Digestive Problems :
- Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
- Lactose Intolerance.
Disorders of Digestive System:
- Jaundice: In this. The liver gets affected, skin and eyes turn yellow due to the deposit of bile pigment.
- Vomiting: It is the ejection of stomach contents through the mouth and controlled by the center in the medulla oblongata.
- Diarrhea: It is the abnormal bowel movement and the fecal discharge with more liquidity, which leads to dehydration.
- Constipation: A condition in which the feces are clutched within the rectum due to an irregular bowel movement.
- Indigestion: A pain or discomfort in the stomach which is caused when food is not digested properly resulting in the feeling of fullness. Indigestion is mainly caused due to inadequate enzyme secretion, food poisoning, anxiety, overeating and eating spicy foods.
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