Like humans and animals, plants do require the certain necessary substance to keep them alive, active and to carry out different life process. For their survival, plants are dependent on a number of factors which include water, minerals, gases, and other nutrients. The movement of gas, water, and nutrients in plants are carried out in components and different parts of the plants play an essential role in transportation.
Different parts of the plant get water, ions and other required nutrients from the root as it absorbs from the soil. The exchange of gases takes place through the stomata, which are present in the leaves.
In higher plants and trees, the movement of substance get difficult as the distances increases, therefore a well-developed transportation system arises as these movements of substances have to be facilitated with extreme care.
Here, let us know more about the Transportation System in Plants.
What is Transportation In Plants
Transportation is generally defined as the movement of the substances from one place to another. In plants, different parts of plant require water, minerals, and nutrients for the proper functioning of cells.
Vascular plants are plants in the Kingdom Plantae that have a specialized system for transporting water, nutrients, and minerals throughout the plant. Plants are autotrophs, which can synthesize their food during the presence of sunlight and other essential products including carbon dioxide, minerals, water and later releases oxygen and water vapor as their bi-product. All these processes are only possible with the presence of the Transportation System.
Also refer: Photosynthesis
Why is Transportation Important for Plants?
Transportation System in plants helps in circulating water, gases, essential nutrients, and other excretory products within the plants for various life processes, therefore, transportation is necessary for all plants.
The vascular tissues play an important role in this transportation. Xylem and phloem are considered as a primary component of the vascular tissue of a plant.
Also, read about the Difference Between Xylem And Phloem
Transport System in Plants
Transport of Water in Plants
The amount of energy required by plants is lower compared to that of animals, hence there is a requirement of slower transportation. In plants, a continuous tube-like structure, composed of vascular tissues, called xylem and phloem are two modes of transportation.
In all higher plants, the water molecules travel in upwards direction through the xylem tissue and the phloem is involved in transporting synthesized food to other parts of the plant. The movement of water and other nutrients from one part of a plant to another is called translocation. Water gets absorbed by osmosis while minerals by active transport. The method used in the upward movement of water through the xylem is determined by the cohesion-tension theory.
Here the driving force of transport is transpiration. In this process, cohesion is responsible for driving more water through the xylem and excess water molecules are pulled up by the pulling force which later evaporates through the tiny pores of stomata.
Transport of Nutrients in Plants
As we all knew plants could not live on water and sugar alone. They do need nutrients that they could not produce by themselves, hence they derive from the soil. Macro and micronutrients are transported through the vascular tissue. In this process, Roots absorb nutrients from the soil and transport through the xylem while the phloem takes care of the organic molecules. Nutrients are transferred to different plant parts, such as new leaves or branches.
Exchange of gases in Plants
Plants exchange gases through their leaves. During the daytime, plants consume carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and release oxygen as a byproduct which is used for Aerobic respiration. During night plants consume oxygen required for their respiration and releases carbon dioxide.
Explore: Transportation In Plants And Trees
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