Difference Between Tracheids And Vessels

Food, nutrients, water, minerals are transported from roots to leaves by two types of vascular tissues, viz, xylem and phloem.

Xylem tissue transports water and minerals from roots to other parts of the plants, with the help of tracheids and vessels. These Xylem tissues are also known as tracheary elements.

Cells of tracheids and vessels die at maturity, they have lignified walls, and they are present in primary as well as secondary Xylem. Below are some major differences between tracheids and vessels.

Tracheids vs Vessels

Following are the important difference between tracheids and vessels:

Tracheids Vessels
In all vascular plants In angiosperms
Type of cells
Imperforated Perforated
Cell wall
Thin Thick
Lateral End to end
Cross section
Polygonal Circular
Water conduction
Inefficient Very efficient
Narrow Wide
Cell length
1 mm 10 cm
Surface to volume ratio
High Low
End walls
Transverse or diagonal
Less large pits Large small pits

What are Tracheids?

Tracheids are the conducting elements in the xylem of angiosperms. They are also found in ferns and gymnosperms. It comprises a singleĀ  cell with pointed ends.

When the secondary cell wall thickens, the tracheids become highly lignified. After lignification, the tracheids become dead. Tracheids also provide mechanical support to the plants. They can also hold water against the force of gravity due to high surface area to volume ratio.

What are Vessels?

Vessels are found only in angiosperms and help in conducting water and minerals in the plants. During secondary cell wall thickening by lignification, dead, tubular cells are produced for conduction of water. These vessels do not contain protoplasm on maturity.

Similarities between Tracheids and Vessels

The tracheids and vessels are also similar in a number of ways. Below-mentioned are a few of the similarities:

  1. Tracheids and vessesl are the components of the xylem.
  2. Both help in conduction of water along the stem and provide mechanical support to the plant.
  3. Both are tubular cells.
  4. They possess secondary lignification and become dead on maturity.

Hope you are now clear with the Difference Between Tracheids And Vessels. For a better understanding of the process of Transportation in Plants , register to BYJU’S – the learning App

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