Active and Passive Transport - Its Difference

Active and Passive Transport

Active and passive transport are the two main biological processes that play a crucial role in supplying nutrients, oxygen, water, and other essential molecules to the cells along with the elimination of waste products. Both active and passive transport works for the same cause, but with different movement.

active and passive transport

Active Transport

In these biological processes, molecules move against the concentration gradient and require chemical energy to move biochemical compounds from a lower region to the high region. Therefore, this process uses ATP – Adenosine triphosphate to pump molecules through a concentration gradient. Complex sugar, ions, large cells, proteins, and other particles are transported in this process. There are two types of Active transport:

  1. Primary Active transport
  2. Secondary Active transport

Exocytosis, endocytosis and sodium potassium are a few examples of active transport. The process of endocytosis and exocytosis are utilized by all the cells for transportation of molecules which cannot passively permeate via the membrane.

  • Endocytosis is the process of active transportation of molecules into the cells by the action of engulfing it along with its membrane.
  • Exocytosis produces a counter function thereby forcing molecules out of the cell. The process of homeostasis facilitates an equal flow of molecules in and out of a cell which confers that the number of molecules that enter the cell through endocytosis equates to the number of molecules that exits a cell through the process of exocytosis. Both the processes assure that nutrients and wastes are balanced for the smooth functioning of the cells.

Passive Transport

In these biological process, there is no need for any energy for transporting the molecules, as the biochemicals move from higher to the lower concentration. All the easy soluble particles are transported through passive transport. This process is carried out to maintain the balance and the equilibrium level in a cell. All the wastes molecules including, water and carbon dioxide is separated and moved out of the cell using passive transport. Meanwhile, nutrients like oxygen that are functional for the cell are diffused in this process. Osmosis, diffusion and facilitated diffusion are some of the examples of passive transport.

Now let us learn about the differences between these two biological process.

Difference Between Active And Passive Transport

Active Transport Passive Transport
Requires cellular energy. Do not require cellular energy.
It circulates from an area of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration It circulates from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration
Required in the transportation of all the molecules such as proteins, large cells, complex sugars, ions, etc. Required in the transportation all the soluble molecules which include oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, lipids, sex hormones, monosaccharides, etc.
It transports various molecules in the cell. It is involved in the maintenance of the equilibrium level inside the cell.
Active transport is a dynamic process. Passive Transport is a physical process.
It is highly selective. It is partly non-selective
Active transport is a rapid process. Passive transport is a comparatively slow process.
Transpires in one direction. Transpires bidirectionally.
Active transportation is influenced by temperature. Passive transportation is not influenced by temperature.
In Active transport carrier proteins are required In passive transport carrier proteins are not required
This process reduces or halts as the oxygen content level is reduced. This process is not affected by the level of oxygen content.
Metabolic inhibitors can influence and stop the active transport. Passive transportation is not influenced by metabolic inhibitors.
Different types of Active Transport are –
Exocytosis, endocytosis,  sodium-potassium pump
Different types of Passive Transport are – Osmosis, diffusion, and facilitated diffusion
Discover more about these two important biological process, their differences, and other related topics only @ BYJU’S Biology

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