Look at the various ways in which people earn their living in villages. Also, examine whether people have equal opportunities to earn a living. Students can also go on to find similarities in their life situations and the problems that they face from Chapter 8 of CBSE Class 6 Civics. Meanwhile, CBSE Notes Class 6 Civics Chapter 8-Rural Livelihoods have been devised for the students to easily understand all the concepts of the Chapter thoroughly.
Click on the link given below in this article to download the PDF version of the CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes from Chapter 8 Civics.
Kalpattu-village close to the sea coast in Tamil Nadu- has non-farm work such as making baskets, utensils, pots, bricks, bullock-carts -people provide services such as blacksmiths, nurses, teachers, washermen, weavers, barbers, cycle repair mechanics-also some shopkeepers and traders-main street looks like a bazaar-find a variety of small shops such as tea shops, grocery shops, barbershops, a cloth shop, a tailor and two fertiliser and seed shops-are four teashops- sell tiffins (idli, dosa and upama in the morning-snacks like vadai, bonda and mysorepak in the evening)-a blacksmith family whose home serves as their workshop-cycle hire and repair shop-families earn a living by washing clothes- some go to the nearby town to work as construction workers and lorry drivers- village surrounded by low hills-Paddy is the main crop -grown in irrigated lands-Most families earn living through agriculture- are some coconut groves around-Cotton, sugar cane and plantain are also grown- there are mango orchards.
Poor families in rural areas -collect firewood, get water and graze their cattle-they do not earn any money from these activities-they do them for the household-family needs to spend time doing this -they are not able to survive on the little money they earn-Nearly 2/5th of all rural families are agricultural labourers- some have small plots of land – others like Thulasi are landless-Not being able to earn money throughout the year forces people in many rural areas to travel long distances in search of work-travel, or migration, takes place during particular seasons.
On being in Debt
Farmers need to borrow money to purchase basic things like seeds, fertilisers and pesticides-often borrow money from moneylenders-If the seeds are not of good quality-pests attack their crop-major crop failure-crops can be ruined if monsoon does not bring enough rain- farmers sometimes are unable to pay back their loans-for the family to survive- they have to borrow more money-loan becomes so large -no matter what they earn-unable to repay-they are caught in debt- major cause of distress among farmer- also resulted in many farmers committing suicide.
Agricultural Labourers and Farmers in India
In Kalpattu village-agricultural labourers -small farmers-few big farmers. In India, nearly 2 out of all 5 rural families-agricultural labourer families-depend on the work they do on other people’s fields to earn a living-they are landless- some may own very small plots of land-small farmers land is barely enough to meet their needs-In India 80% of farmers belong to this group. Only 20% of India’s farmers are big farmers who cultivate most of the land in the villages-large part of their products sold in the market- have started other businesses such as shops, moneylending, trading, small factories and so on.
Apart from farming-people in rural areas depend upon collection from the forest, animal husbandry, dairy produce, fishing and so on-Collecting mahua, tendu leaves, honey-to be sold to the traders-an important source of additional income-selling milk to the village cooperative society-taking milk to the nearby town -the main source of livelihood for some families. In the coastal areas-fishing villages.
People in rural areas- earn living-work on farms-earn their living on nonfarm activities. Working on farms- operations such as preparing the land, sowing, weeding and harvesting of crops-depend on nature for the growth of these crops-life revolves around certain seasons-People busy during sowing and harvesting-Rural people in different regions grow different crops- similarities in their life situations-problems that they face-how people survive or earn will depend upon the land that they cultivate-many depend on these lands for work as labourers-most farmers grow crops both for their own requirements-sell in the market-sell to traders from whom they have borrowed money-To survive, families, borrow money for their work-when no work is available-some families thrive on large acres of lands, business and other activities. But, most small farmers, agricultural labourers, fishing families, craftspersons in the villages do not find enough work to keep them employed throughout the year.