There are over 5000 towns and 27 big cities in India like Chennai, Mumbai, Delhi, Kolkata and so on. Over a million people are living and working here. They say that ‘the city never sleeps!’ What work do people do in the city? Are they employed by someone or are they self-employed? How do they organise themselves? And do they have similar employment and earning opportunities? Learn this from Chapter 9 of CBSE Class 6 Civics. Students can also revise the Chapter with the help of CBSE Notes Class 6 Civics Chapter 9-Urban Livelihoods.
Find the link to download CBSE Class 6 Social Science Notes from Civics Chapter 9 below in this article. Click and start preparing for the exam.
A large number of people in the city work on streets-12 % of all the workers in the city were people working on the street- they sell things or repair them or provide a service-work on their own-are not employed by anyone-have to organise their own work-have to plan how much to purchase-where and how to set up their shops-shops are usually temporary structures-just some boards or papers spread over discarded boxes-or a canvas sheet hung up on a few poles. -may also use their own carts or simply a plastic sheet spread on the pavement-can be asked to dismantle their shops at any time by the police- have no security- there are certain parts of the city where these hawkers are not allowed to enter-Vendors sell things -often prepared at home by their families who purchase, clean, sort and make them ready to sell-almost 1 crore street vendors working in the urban areas- an obstruction to traffic and to people walking-is now recognised as a general benefit -right of people to earn their livelihood- government thinking about modifying the law that banned street vendors so that they have a place to work and that there is also a free flow of traffic and people-Hawking zones have been suggested for towns and cities-also been suggested that mobile vendors should be allowed to move around freely-Hawkers need to be part of committees – set up to take these and other decisions relating to them.
In the Market
Many people own shops in various markets of the city-may be small or large-sell different things-businesspersons manage their own shops or business-not employed by anyone-do employ a number of other workers as supervisors and helpers-are permanent shops-given a licence to do business by the municipal corporation-Municipal Corporation decides on which day of the week the market has to remain closed-market also has small offices and shops that provide services, such as banks, courier services and others.
In the Factory-Workshop Area
The place called “labour chowk”-were daily wage labourers who work as helpers to masons-dig at construction sites, lift loads or unload trucks in the market, dig pipelines and telephone cables and also build roads-thousands of such casual workers in the city-most workers in the factory, are employed on what is known as casual basis-required to come as and when the employer needs them-are employed when the employer gets large orders-or during certain seasons-other times they have to find some other work-not a permanent job- if workers complain about their pay or working conditions-asked to leave-no job security or protection-there is ill-treatment-are also expected to work very long hours.
In the Office Area
People working in offices draw a regular monthly salary-a permanent worker with the company-expect the job to continue for a long period of time-other benefits of permanent worker-Savings for old age: Part of her salary kept in a fund with the government-can earn interest on these savings-Holidays: mostly gets off on weekends and national holidays-gets some days as annual leave-Medical facilities for her family: Company pays the medical expenses up to a certain amount-gets medical leave-salary is not cut on taking this leave.