Important Chemical Reactions for Class 12 Chemistry

Here are some important chemical reactions which every student of class 12 must have a thorough understanding of.

  1. Sandmeyer Reaction:

    The Sandmeyer reaction is a chemical reaction which is used to synthesize aryl halides from aryl diazonium salts. This reaction is a method for substitution of an aromatic amino group by preparing diazonium salt that is followed by its displacement and copper salts often catalyze it.

    Sandmeyer Reaction

    The Br, Cl and Cn nucleophiles can be easily present in the benzene ring of benzene diazonium salt in the presence of Copper ion.

  2. Gattermann Reaction:

    Bromine and Chlorine can be present in the benzene ring by preparing the benzene diazonium salt solution with similar halogen acid present with copper powder. This is the Gattermann Reaction.

    Gattermann Reaction

  3. Balz-Schiemann Reaction:

    When arene-diazonium chloride is prepared with fluoroboric acid, arene diazonium fluoroborate is precipitated and decomposes to yield aryl fluoride which on heating.

    Balz-Schiemann Reaction

  4. Finkelstein Reaction:

    In the Finkelstein Reaction Alkyl iodides are prepared easily by the reaction of alkyl chlorides with Nal in dry acetone.

    Finkelstein Reaction

  5. Swarts Reaction:

    When alkyl chloride is heated in the presence of a metallic fluoride like AgF, Hg2F2, SbF3 or CoF2, we get alkyl fluorides.

    Swarts Reaction

  6. Wurtz Reaction:

    When Alkyl halides get reacted with sodium with dry ether, we get hydrocarbons that include the double number of carbon atoms present in the halide. This is known as the Wurtz Reaction

    Wurtz Reaction

  7. Wurtz-Fittig Reaction:

    When a mixture of alkyl halide and aryl halide gets treated with sodium in dry ether, we get an alkyl arene.

    Wurtz-Fittig Reaction

  8. Fittig Reaction:

    Aryl halides prepared with sodium in dry ether to give analogous compounds where two aryl groups joined.

    Fittig Reaction

  9. Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction:

    Benzene is prepared with an alkyl halide in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride to give Alkylbenzene.

    Friedel-Crafts alkylation ReactionFriedel-Crafts alkylation ReactionFriedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction

    This is the Friedel-Crafts alkylation Reaction

  10. Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction:

    We get acyl benzene when an acyl halide is reacted with benzene in the presence of Lewis acids.

    Friedel-Crafts acylation reactionFriedel-Crafts acylation reactionFriedel-Crafts acylation reaction

  11. Reimer-Tiemann Reaction:

    When preparing phenol with chloroform in the presence of sodium hydroxide, -CHO group is present at the ortho position of the benzene ring which results into salicylaldehyde.

    Reimer-Tiemann Reaction

  12. Kolbe’s Reaction:

    Phenol reacts with sodium hydroxide to give sodium phenoxide which then reacts with carbon dioxide in acidic medium to give hydroxybenzoic acid.

    Kolbe’s Reaction

  13. Rosenmund Reduction:

    When Acyl chloride is hydrogenated to an aldehyde over a catalyst, known as Rosenmund catalyst which is either palladium or barium sulfate.

    Rosenmund Reduction

  14. Stephen reaction:

    Nitriles with stannous chloride in the presence of hydrochloric acid reduced to the corresponding imine and give the corresponding aldehyde after hydrolysis.

    Stephen reaction

  15. Etard reaction:

    Chromyl chloride oxidizes methyl group to get chromium complex which on hydrolysis provides corresponding benzaldehyde.

    Etard reaction

  16. Gatterman – Koch reaction:

    Benzene is prepared with carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride in the presence of anhydrous aluminum chloride to give benzaldehyde.

    Gatterman – Koch reaction

  17. Clemmensen Reduction:

    In Clemmensen reduction, Carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones on treatment with zinc-amalgam and concentrated hydrochloric acid reduced to CH2 group.

    Clemmensen Reduction

  18. Wolff Kishner Reduction:

    Carbonyl group of aldehydes and ketones on treatment with hydrazine which on heating with sodium hydroxide in a high boiling solvent (ethylene glycol) reduced to CH2 group.

    Wolff Kishner Reduction

  19. Tollens’ test:

    Heating an aldehyde with fresh prepared ammoniacal silver nitrate solution produces a bright silver mirror due to the formation of silver metal.

    Tollens’ test

  20. Fehling’s test:

    Fehling’s solution A (aqueous copper sulfate) and Fehling solution B (alkaline sodium potassium tartrate) are mixed in equal amounts before the test. A reddish brown precipitate is obtained when an aldehyde is heated with Fehling’s reagent.

    Fehling’s test

  21. Aldol reaction:

    Aldehydes and ketones having one α-hydrogen undergo a reaction in the presence of dilute alkali as the catalyst to produce β-hydroxy aldehydes or β-hydroxy ketones.

  22. Aldol condensation:

    Aldol and Ketol lose water to provide α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds which are aldol condensation products.

    Aldol condensation

  23. Cross aldol condensation:

    Aldol condensation is carried out between two different aldehydes and ketones. It gives a mixture of four products if both of them includes α-hydrogen atoms.

    Cross aldol condensationCross aldol condensation

  24. Cannizzaro reaction:

    Aldehydes without α-hydrogen atom undergo self-oxidation and reduction reaction when prepared with concentrated alkali.

    Cannizzaro reaction

  25. Kolbe electrolysis:

    in Kolbe electrolysis, An aqueous solution of sodium or potassium salt of a carboxylic acid gives alkane containing an even number of carbon atoms on electrolysis.

    Kolbe electrolysis

  26. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ )reaction:

    Carboxylic acids having a α-hydrogen are halogenated at the α-position give α-halo carboxylic acids on treatment with chlorine or bromine in the presence of small amount of red phosphorus.

    Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky (HVZ )reaction

  27. Gabriel phthalimide synthesis:

    Phthalimide prepared with ethanolic potassium hydroxide produces potassium salt of phthalimide when heated with alkyl halide followed by alkaline hydrolysis forms the corresponding primary amine.

    Gabriel phthalimide synthesis

  28. Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction:

    An amide with bromine in an aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide produces primary amines. Migration of an alkyl or aryl group takes place from carbonyl carbon of the amide to the nitrogen atom. The amine so produced include one carbon less than that present in the amide.

    Hoffmann bromamide degradation reaction

  29. Carbylamine reaction:

    Aliphatic and aromatic primary amines when heated with chloroform and ethanolic potassium hydroxide produces isocyanides or carbyl amines which are foul smelling substances.

    Carbylamine reaction

  30. Hinsberg’s Test:

    Benzenesulfonyl chloride (C6H5SO2Cl) reacts with primary and secondary amines to produce sulphonamides.

    1. The reaction of benzene-sulfonyl chloride with primary amine yields N-ethyl benzene-sulfonyl amide. The hydrogen attached to the nitrogen in sulphonamide is strongly acidic due to the presence of strong electron withdrawing sulfonyl group. Hence, it is soluble in alkali.Hinsberg’s Test
    2. In the reaction with a secondary amine, N, N-diethyl- benzenesulfonamide is formed. Since N, N- diethyl benzene sulphonamide does not contain any hydrogen atom attached to a nitrogen atom, it is not acidic and hence insoluble in alkali.
      Hinsberg’s Test
    3. Tertiary amines do not react with benzene-sulfonyl chloride.
  31. Coupling Reactions:

    Benzene diazonium chloride gets reacted with phenol in which the phenol molecule at its para position is mixed with the diazonium salt to give p-hydroxyazobenzene.

    Coupling Reactions

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While ZnS is roasted, the temperature is consistently maintained above
8600C while the influx of air is controlled – True or False?